MicroRNA in cardiology –  review for clinical practice


Authors: J. Novák
Authors‘ workplace: II. interní klinika LF MU a FN U sv. Anny v Brně 1;  Fyziologický ústav, LF MU Brno 2;  Ústav patologické fyziologie, LF MU Brno 3
Published in: Kardiol Rev Int Med 2016, 18(4): 258-267

Overview

MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that are involved in the regulation and fine-tuning of gene expression. They regulate almost all thinkable signalling pathways and thus participate in the maintenance of homeostasis. The levels of individual miRNAs are affected by various external stimuli and they also change in the presence of diseases; these changes can be detected in tissues and bodily fluids (i.e. blood or urine). One miRNA commonly regulates more signalling cascades, either interconnected or independent, and this enables us to better understand the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and reveal novel targets for therapy. Moreover, the presence of miRNAs in the extracellular space makes them potentially usable as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of various diseases that can be employed in differential diagnostics and risk stratification of individual patients. This review article summarises basic information about miRNAs and their function. Further, selected miRNAs and their roles in the pathophysiology of some cardiovascular diseases will be described, focusing on those potentially usable in clinical practice.

Keywords:
microRNA – cardiology – biomarkers


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