1. Papp Z, Édes I, Fruhwald S et al. Levosimendan: Molecular mechanisms and clinical implications: Consensus of experts on the mechanisms of action of levosimendan. Int J Cardiol 2012; 159: 82–87.
2. Yilmaz M, Yalta K, Yontar C et al. Levosimendan improves renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure: comparison with dobutamine. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2007; 21: 431–435.
3. Landoni G, Biondi-Zoccai G, Greco M et al. Effects of levosimendan on mortality and hospitalization. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Crit Care Med 2012; 40: 634–646.
4. Lilleberq J, Sundberq S, Nieminen M. Dose-range study of a new calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1995; 26 Suppl 1: S63–S69.
5. Slawsky MT, Colucci WS, Gottlieb SS et al. Acute Hemodynamic and Clinical Effects of Levosimendan in Patients With Severe Heart Failure. Circulation 2000; 102: 2222–2227.
6. Follath F, Cleland J, Just H et al. Steering Committee and Investigators of the Levosimendan Infusion versus Dobutamine (LIDO) Study. Efficacy and safety of intravenous levosimendan compared with dobutamine in severe low-output heart failure (the LIDO study): a randomised double-blind trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 196–202.
7. Mebazaa A, Nieminen M, Packer M et al. SURVIVE Investigators. Levosimendan vs dobutamine for patients with acute decompensated heart failure: the SURVIVE Randomized Trial. JAMA 2007; 297: 1883–1891.
8. Cohen-Solal A, Loqeart D, Huanq B et al. Lowered B-type natriuretic peptide in response to levosimendan or dobutamine treatment is associated with improved survival in patients with severe acutely decompensated heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53: 2343–2348.
9. de Lissovoy G, Fraeman K, Teerling J et al. Hospital costs for treatment of acute heart failure: economic analysis of the REVIVE II study. Eur J Health Econ 2010; 11: 185–193.
10. Rokyta R Jr, Pechman V. The effects of levosimendan on global haemodynamics in patients with cardiogenic shock. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2006; 27: 121–127.
11. Hasslacher J, Bijuklic K, Bertocchi C et al. Levosimendan inhibits release of reactive oxygen species in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in patients with acute heart failure and septic shock: a prospective observational study. Critical Care 2011; 15: R166.
12. Morelli A, Donati A, Ertmer C et al. Levosimendan for resuscitating the microcirculation in patients with septic shock: a randomized controlled study. Critical Care 2010; 14: R232.
13. Morelli A, Etmer C, Rehberg S et al. Effects of levosimendan on renal function in septic shock: a casecontrol study. Critical Care 2009; 13 (Suppl 1): P170.
14. Matejovic M, Krouzecky A, Radej J et al. Successful reversal of resistent hypodynamic septic shock with levosimendan. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2005; 49: 127–128.
15. Authors/Task Force Members, McMurray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The TaskForce for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur J Heart Fail 2012; 14: 803–869.
16. Authors/Task Force Members, Steg PG, James SK, Atar D et al. ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation: The Task Force on the management of ST-segment elevation acute myocardialinfarction of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2012; [Epub ahead of print].
17. Werdan K, Ruâ M, Buerke M et al. Cardiogenic shock due to myocardial infarction: diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. A german-Austrian S3 Guideline. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2012; 109: 343–351.
18. De Hert SG, Lorsomradee S, Cromheecke S et al. The Effects of Levosimendan in Cardiac Surgery Patients with Poor Left Ventricular Function. Anesth Analg 2007; 104: 766–773.
19. De Hert SG, Lorsomradee S, vanden Eede H et al. A Randomized Trial Evaluating Different Modalities of Levosimendan Administration in Cardiac Surgery Patients With Myocardial Dysfunction. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2008; 22: 699–705.
20. Mebazaa A, Pitsis A, Rudiger A et al. Clinical review: Practical recommendations on the management of perioperative heart failure in cardiac surgery. Crit Care 2010; 14: 201.
21. Eriksson HI, Jalonen JR, Heikkinen LO et al. Levosimendan facilitates weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with impaired left ventricular function. Ann Thorac Surg 2009; 87: 448–454.
22. Maharaj R, Metaxa V. Levosimendan and mortality after coronary revascularisation: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Crit Care 2011; 15: R140.
23. Zafrir B, Amir O. Beta blocker therapy, decompensated heart failure, and inotropic interactions: current perspectives. Isr Med Assoc J 2012; 14: 184–189.