Helicobacter Pylori in Oropharyngeal/epipharyngeal Pathology and Pathogenesis in Relation to ORL Diseases


Authors: E. Nártová 1;  J. Astl 1;  P. Lukeš 1;  R. Katra 2;  E. Pavlík 3;  J. Betka 1
Authors‘ workplace: Klinika ORL a chirurgie hlavy a krku 1. LF UK a FN Motol, Praha, Katedra otorinolaryngologie IPVZ, Praha, přednosta prof. MUDr. J. Betka, DrSc. 1;  Klinika dětské ORL 2. LF UK a FN Motol, Praha, přednosta doc. MUDr. Z. Kabelka, Ph. D. 2;  Ústav imunologie a mikrobiologie 1. LF UK a VFN, Praha, přednostka prof. RNDr. L. Kolářová, CSc. 3
Published in: Otorinolaryng. a Foniat. /Prague/, 61, 2012, No. 2, pp. 120-129.
Category: Review Article

Overview



Helicobacter pylori
(HP) is a gram negative, microaerophilic bacterium. This bacterium is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric carcinoma. HP infection is often acquired in childhood. High prevalence of HP infection was reported in developing countries. The prevalence in Central and Eastern Europe is estimated from 60 to 90%. The question of colonization of oro/epipharyngeal lymphatic tissue has been recently discussed. HP was detected in dental plaque, saliva, adenoid tissue in children, palatines and middle ear fluid. The most sensitive technique for HP detection is PCR, specifically real – time PCR. The role of HP in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis remains unresolved. This theory is based on the fact that HP induces cytokine production, esp. EGF, TGF and NOS, which involves cell proliferation and tumour transformation. Possible modes of transmission of bacteria have not been fully explained. Person to person transmission can occur through several routes, e.g., oral–oral and fecal–oral route. The association between simultaneous colonization of HP in the oral cavity and that in stomach has not been understood yet. Some scientific works showed the difference in genotypes between oropharyngeal and gastric isolates.

Our review shows recent results of scientific works about HP in oropharynx, relationship between oro/epipharyngeal and gastric HP infection and discusses the value of diagnostic tests for HP detection .

Key words:
Helicobacter pylori (HP), detection methods, PCR.


Sources

1. Abdel–Monem, M. H., Magdy, E. A., Nour, Y. A. et al.: Detection of Helicobacter pylori in adenolar tissue of children with chronic adenolitis using rapid urease test, PCR and blood serology: A prospective study. Int. J. Pediatr. Othorinolaryngol., 75, 2011, s. 568-572.

2. Akbayir, N., Basak, T., Seven, H. et al.: Investigation of Helicobacter pylori colonization in laryngeal neoplasia. Eur Arch Othorinolaryngol., 2005, 262, s. 170-172.

3. Allaker, R. P., Young, K. A., Hardie, J. M. et al.: Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori at oral and gastrointestinal sites in children: Evidence for possible oral – to – oral transmission. J. Med. Microbiol., 51, 2002, s. 312-317.

4. Assumpcao, M. B., Martins, L. C. et al.: Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and stomach of patients from Northern Brazil. World J. Gastroenterol., 16, 2010, s. 3033-3039.

5. Backert, S., Selbach, M.: Role of type IV secretion in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. Cell Microbiol, 2008, 10, s. 1573–1581.

6. Bitar, A., Soweid A. et al.: Is Helicobacter really present in the adenoids of children? Eur Arch. Otorinolaryngol., 262, 2005, s. 987-992.

7. Bitar, M., Mahfouz, R., Soweid, A. et al.: Does Helicobacter pylori colonized the nasopharynx of children and contribute to their middle ear disease? Acta Otorinolaryngol, 126, 2006, s. 154-159.

8. Bode, G., Mauch, F., Malfertheiner, P.: The coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori. Criteria for their viability. Epidemiol. Infect., 111, 1993, s. 483-490.

9. Boncristiano, M., Paccani, S. R., Barone, S. et al.: The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin inhibits T cell activation by two independent mechanisms. J. Exp. Med., 198, 2003, s. 1887-1897.

10. Bulut,Y., Agacayak, A., Karlidag, T. et al.: Association of CagA+ Helicobacter pylori with adenolar hypertrophy. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 209, 2006, 3, s. 229-233.

11. Bureš, J., Kopáčová, M., Koupil, I. et al.: Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in the Czech Republic. Helicobacter, 11, 2006, s. 56-65.

12. Bürgers, R., Schneider–Brachert, W., Reischl, U. et al.: Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach. Eur J. Oral Sci., 2008, 116, s. 297-304.

13. Cellini, L., Grande, R., Artese, L., Marzio, L. : Detection of Helicobacter pylori in saliva and esophagus. New Microbiol., 33, 2010, s. 351-357.

14. Cirak, M. Y., Ozdek, A., Yilmaz, D. et al.: Detection of Helicobacter pylori and its CagA gene in and adenoid tissues by PCR. Arch. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg., 129, 2003, s. 1225-1229.

15. Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, M., Bielanski, W., Guzik, T. J., Loster, B., Konturek, S. J.: Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and its implications in gastric infection, periodontal health, immunology and dyspepsia. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 56, 2005, Suppl. 6, s. 77-89.

16. Dagtekin–Ergür, E. N., Eren, F., Ustün, M. B. et al.: Investigation of Helicobacter pylori colonization in pharyngeal and palatine s with rapid urease test and immunohistochemical analysis. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg., 18, 2008, s. 85-89.

17. Di Bonaventura, G., Catamo, G., Neri, M. et al.: Absence of Helicobacter pylori in lar swabs from dyspeptic patients. New Microbiol., 23, 2000, s. 445‑448.

18. Dowsett, S. A., Kowolik, M. J.: Oral Helicobacter pylori: Can we stomach it? Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med., 14, 2003, 3, s. 226-233.

19. Eskandari, A., Mahmoudpour, A., Abolfazli, N., Lafzi, A.: Detection of Helicobacter pylori using PCR in dental plaque of patients with and without gastritis. Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal, 15, 2010, s. 28-31.

20. Espinoza, M. G., Gonzalez, V. R., Morales, M. I. et al.: Detection of the glM Gene in Helicobacter pylori Isolates with a novel primer by PCR. S. J. Clin. Microbiol., 49, 2011, 4, s. 1650-1652.

21. Eyigor, M., Eyigor, H., Gultekin, B. et al: Detection of Helicobacter pylori in adenoler tissue specimens by rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction. Eur Arch. Otorinolaryngol, 266, 2009, s. 1611-1613.

22. Guarner, J., Kalach, N., Elitsur, Y. et al.: Helicobacter pylori dignostic test in children: review of the literature from 1999 to 2009. Eur J. Pediatr., 169, 2010, s. 15-25.

23. Hatakeyama, M.: SagA of CagA in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 11, 2008, s. 30-37.

24. Hatakeyama, M. : The role of Helicobacter pylori CagA in gastric carcinogenesis. Int. J. Hematol., 2006, 84, S. 304-308.

25. Höcker, M., Hohenberger, P.: Helicobacter pylori virulence factors – one part of a big picture. Lancet, 362, 2003, 2, s. 1231-1233.

26. Ishihara, K., Miura, T., Kimizuka, R. et al.: Oral bacterua inhibit Helicobacter pylori growth. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 152, 1997, s. 355-361.

27. Jelavic, B., Bevanda, M., Ostojic, M. et al.: Lar colonization is unlikely to play important role in Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Int. J. Pediatr. Othorinolaryngol, 71, 2007, s. 585-590.

28. Karczewska, E., Konturek, J. E., Konturek, P. C. et al.: Oral cavity as apotential source of gastric reinfection by Helicobacter pylori. Dig. Dis. Sci., 47, 2002, s. 978-986.

29. Khademi, B., Imanieh, M. H.: Investigation of H. pylori colonization in adenolectomy specimens by means of rapid urease (CLO) test. Iran J. Med. Sci., 30, 2005, s. 138-140.

30. Khademi, B., Niknejad, N., Gandomi, B. ,Yeganeh, F.: Comparison of Helicobacter pylori colonization on the lar surface versus lar core tissue as determined by the CLO test. Ear Nose Throat, 86, 2007, 8, s. 498-501.

31. Krajden, S., Fuksa, M., Anderson, J. et al.: Examination of human stomach biopsies, saliva, and dental plaque for campylobacter pylori. J. Clin. Microbiol., 27, 1989, s. 1397-1398.

32. Kumar, S., Kumar, A., Dixit, V. K.: Direct detection and analysis of vacA genotypes and cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori from gastric biopsies by a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Dian. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 62, 2008, s. 366-373.

33. Kusano, K., Inokuchi, A., Fujimoto, K. et al.: Coccoid Helicobacter pylori exists in the palatines of patients with IgA nephrophathy. J. Gastroenterol., 45, 2010, s. 406-412.

34. Logan, R. P.: Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. Lancet, 344, 1994, s. 1078-1079.

35. Lukeš, P., Astl, J., Pavlík, E.et al.: Helicobacter pylori in lar and adenoid tissue and its possible role in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis. Folia Biol., 54, 2008, s. 33‑39.

36. Madami, S., Rabah, R., Tolia, V.: Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection from antral biopsies in pediatric patients is urease test that reliable? Dig. Dis. Sci., 45, 2000, s. 1233-1237.

37. Mégraud, F., Lehours, P.: Helicobacter pylori detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. J. Clin. Microbiol., 20 2007, s. 280-322.

38. Minocha, A., Raczkowski, C. A., Richards, R. J. : Is a history of lectomy associated with a decreased risk of Helicobacter pylori infection? J. Clin. Gastroenterol., 25, 1997, s. 580- 582.

39. Moghaddam, Y. J., Rafeey, M., Radfar, R.: Comparative assessment of Helicobacter pylori colonization in children lar tissues. Int. J. Pediatr. Othorinolaryngol, 73, 2009, s. 1199-1201.

40. Montealegre, O. M. C., Jaramillo, H. C. A., Montealegre, L. G. et al.: Molecular and histological detection of Helicobacter pylori and genotyping based on BabA2 and IceA inpatients with benign gastric pathologies. P. Rev. Chilena Infectol., 27, 2010, 2, s. 112-118.

41. Namavar, F., Roosendaal, R., Kuipers, E. J. et al.: Presence of Heliconcter pylori in the oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach and faeces of patients with gastritis. Eur J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect Dis., 14, 2001, s. 234.

42. Nártová, E., Lukeš, P., Pavlík, E, Šterzl, I., Astl, J., Betka, J.: Přítomnost Helicobacter pylori v orofaryngu a její vztah k žaludeční infekci. Otorinolaryng. a Foniat. /Prague/ 58, 2009, č. 2, s. 97-101.

43. Olivares, D., Gisbert, J. P. et al.: Factrors involved in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Rev. Esp. Enferm. Dig., 98, 2006, 5, s. 374 -386.

44. Oshowo, A., Tunio, M., Gillam, D. et al.: Oral colonization is unlikely to play an important role in Helicobacter pylori infection. Br. J. Surg, 85, 1998, s. 850-852.

45. Pavlík, E., Pavlíková, A.: Molekulárně biologické techniky pro mikrobiologickou diagnostiku – část 11. Labor Aktuell, 0304.

46. Pavlík, E., Lukeš, P., Potužníková, B., Astl, J. et al.: Helicobacter pylori Isolated from patients with lar cancer or litis chronica could be of different gnotype compared to isolates from gastrointestinal tract. Folia Microbiol., 52, 2007, s. 91-94.

47. Pitkaranta, A., Kolho, K. L., Rautelin, H.: Helicobacter pylori in children who are prone to upper respiratory tract infections. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 131, 2005, s. 256-258.

48. Portal–Celhay, C., Perez–Perez, G.: Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori colonization: Mechanism and clinical outcomes. Clin. Sci.,110, 2006, 3, s. 305-314.

49. Qing–Hua, Z., Ren–Qing, L.: Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and gastric mucosa: a metaanalysis. J. Oral Pathol. Med., 40, 2011, s. 317-324.

50. Qureshi, H., Ahmed, W., Zuberi, S. et al.: Use of CLO test in the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection and its correlation with histologic gastritis. J. Pak.Med. Assoc., 42, 1992, s. 292-293.

51. Rotimi, O., Cairns, A., Gray, S. et al.: Histological identification of Helicobacter pylori: comparison of staining methods. J. Clin. Pathol., 53, 2000, s. 756-759.

52. Secka, O., Antonio, M., Tapgun, M. et al.: PCR – based genotyping of Helicobacter pylori of Gambian children and adults directly from biopsy specimens and bacterial cultures. Gut Pathos., 20, 2011, 3, s. 5.

53. Silva, D. G., Stevens, R. H., Macedo, J. M., Albano, R. M. et al.: Detection of cytotoxin genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in stomach, saliva and dental plaque. Arch. Oral. Biol., 54, 2009, s. 684-688.

54. Skinner, D. D., Denoya, C. D.: A simple DNA polymerase chain reaction method to locate and define orientation of specific sequences in cloned bacterial genomic fragments. Microbios., 75, 1993, s. 125-129.

55. Skinner, L. J., Winter, D. C., Curran, A. J. et al.: Helicobacter pylori and tonsillectomy. Clin. Otolaryngol. Allied Sci, 26, 2001, 6, s. 505-509.

56. Stromberg, E., Edebo, A., Svennerholm, A. M., Landholm, C.: Decreased epithelial cytokine response in the duodenal mucosa of HP infected duodenal ulcer patients. Clin. Dian. Lab. Immunol., 10, 2008, s. 116-124.

57. Suzuki, N., Yoneda, M., Naito, T.: Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the saliva of patients complaining of halitosis. J. Med. Microbiol., 57, 2008, s. 1553-1559.

58. Tegtmeyer, N., Wessler, S., Backert, S.: Role of the cag-pathogenicity island encoded type IV secretion system in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. FEBS J., 278, 2011, s. 1190-1202.

59. Terio K. A., Munson L., Marker L. et al.: Comparison of Helicobacter spp. In Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with and without gastritis. J. Clin. Microbiol., 43, 2005, s. 229-234.

60. Toros, S. Z., Toros, A. B., Kaya, K. S. et al.: A study to detect Helicobacter pylori in adenolar tissue. Ear Nose Throat J., 90, 2011, s. 32.

61. Unver, S., Kubilay, U., Sezen, O. S., Coskuner, T.: Investigation of Helicobacter pylori colonization in adenolectomy specimens by means of CLO-test. Laryngoscope, 111, 2001, s. 2183-2186.

62. Uygur–Bayramicli, O., Yavuzer, D., Dabak, R. et al.: Helicobacter pylori colonization on tissue. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 97, 2002, s. 2470-2471.

63. Vaira, D., Holton, J., Menegatti, M. et al.: Review article: invasive and noninvasive test for Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol. Ther., 14, 2000, s. 13-22.

64. Vayisoglu, Y., Ozcan, C., Polat, A. et al.: Does Helicobacter pylori play a role in the development of chronic adenolitis? Int. J. Pediatr. Othorinolaryngol, 72, 2008, s. 1497-1501.

65. Velapatino, B., Balgini, J., Gilman, R. H. et al.: Validation of string test for string test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections. J. Clin. Microbiol., 44, 2006, s. 976-980.

66. Vilarinho, S., Guimaraes, N. M., Ferreira, R. M. et al.: Helicobacter pylori colonization of the adenolar tissue: Fact or fiction? Int. J. Pediatr. Othorinolaryngol, 74, 2010, s. 807-811.

67. Vinette, K. M., Gibney, K. M., Proujansky R. et al.: Comparison of PCR and clinical laboratory tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatric patients. BMC. Microbiol., 2004, 4, s. 5.

68. Yilmaz, M., Kara, C. O., Kaleli, I., Demir, M., Tumkaya, F., Buke, A. S., Topuz, B.: Are tonsils a reservoir for Helicobacter pylori infection in children? Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol, 68, 2004, s. 307-310.

69. Yilmaz, T., Ceylan, M., Akyon, Y., Ozcakyr, O., Gursel, B.: Helicobacter pylori: A possible association with otitis media with effusion. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg., 134, 2006, s. 772-777.

Labels
Audiology Paediatric ENT ENT (Otorhinolaryngology)
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account