Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the clinical medicine


Authors: Jaroslav Macášek;  Miroslav Zeman;  Marek Vecka;  Lucie Vávrová;  Jana Kodydková;  Eva Tvrzická;  Aleš Žák
Authors‘ workplace: Univerzita Karlova v Praze, 1. lékařská fakulta, IV. interní klinika VFN
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2011; 150: 423-432
Category: Review Articles

Overview

Vast knowledge has accumulated recently on the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in clinical medicine. Strong evidence was disclosed on their important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Free radicals have unpaired electron and this is the reason for extreme reactivity causing propagation reactions that lead to the multiple damage to cells. Oxidizing agents belong to the family of reactive species. Reactive oxygen species are produced during biochemical processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, phagocytosis and metabolism of purins. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species can cause the tissue damage. Reactive nitrogen species are produced by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by the action of asymmetric dimethylarginine. Peroxisomal oxidases, NAD(P) oxidase, xanthinoxidase, nitric oxide synthase, myeloperoxidase and lipooxygenase catalyze biochemical reactions producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Biochemical and molecular processes in cells are negatively influenced by chemical modification of DNA, proteins and lipids caused by the action of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Antioxidant metabolites and enzymes work together to stop and to prevent oxidative modification of biomolecules. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and neurodegenerative diseases.

Key words:
RONS, radicals, superoxide anion, nitric oxide radical, antioxidants, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases.


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