Composition of the Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Lipid Peroxidation in Metabolic Syndrome


Authors: A. Žák 1;  M. Vecka 1;  E. Tvrzická 1,2;  M. Jáchymová 2;  M. Dušejovská 1;  L. Janíková 1;  B. Staňková 1;  L. Vávrová 1;  J. Kodydková 1;  M. Zeman 1
Authors‘ workplace: IV. interní klinika 1. LF UK a VFN, Praha 1;  Ústav klinické biochemie a laboratorní diagnostiky 1. LF UK a VFN, Praha 2
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2007; 146: 484-491
Category: Original Article

Overview

Background.
Composition of the nonesterified fatty acids in plasma in metabolic syndrome patients and in other syndromes of insulin resistance is altered. Fatty acid profile in plasma is related to the composition of dietary fat and to the metabolic changes of fatty acids, e.g. to de novo lipogenesis, β-oxidation and conversion accompanying the oxidative stress. The aim of the work was to study the fatty acid composition in the major plasma lipid classes in relation to the insulin resistance, to some polymorphisms of candidate genes with activity related to insulin resistance, and to the lipoprotein composition and parameters of lipid peroxidation.

Methods and Results.
95 patients with metabolic syndrome (56 M/39 F) and 195 healthy persons (99 M/96 F) were included into the cohort. Basic clinical data, parameters of glucose homeostasis, lipid concentration in plasma and conjugated diens in LDL were determined. Fatty acids were detected by capillary gas chromatography. Polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, intestinal isoforms of fatty acid binding protein (Ala54Thr) and γ-2 isoforms of peroxisomal activated receptor (Ala12Pro) were analyzed using combination of polymerase chain reaction methods and by the detection of polymorphisms of the restriction fragment length. Persons with metabolic syndrome had higher concentrations of CRP and conjugated diens in LDL. In all lipid classes we proved a decreased concentration of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and an increase of unsaturated fatty acids. From all the acids, the only significant was the decrease of linolic acid concentration and the increase of palmitic and palmitoyl acids. Results showed an increase of Δ9 palmitic acid desaturase activity, Δ6 linolic acid desaturase and elongase activity. Concentration of conjugated diens in LDL inversely correlated with linolic acid. Clinical or laboratory parameters and homozygotic combination of polymorphism studied were not mutually related.

Conclusions.
Changes in the profile of fatty acids during the metabolic syndrome results from the elevated lipogenesis and from the higher level of oxidative stress.

Key words:
metabolic syndrome, fatty acid composition, desaturase and elongase activity, oxidative stress, gene polymorphisms.


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Journal of Czech Physicians


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