Current and prospective biologics and small molecules in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases


Authors: Milan Buc
Authors‘ workplace: Imunologický ústav LF UK, Bratislava, Slovenská republika
Published in: Vnitř Lék 2018; 64(3): 280-289
Category: Reviews

Overview

Crohn′s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, which are induced by autoimmune processes. While CD is characterized by over-activity of Th1, ILC1, and MAIT cells, UC is mediated by exaggerated activities of Th2 and ILC2 cells and cytokines they produce. Knowledge of the pathogenesis enabled a rational therapy based mostly on biologics and small molecules. TNF is the principal proinflammatory cytokine in both diseases. Anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies, mostly infliximab or adalimumab were therefore introduced to their treatment. Approximately 50–70 % of CD and more than 33 % of UC patients respond to primary treatment only, which resulted in the development of other biologics and small molecules. Out of them, monoclonal antibodies targeting adhesive molecules (vedolizumab, etrolizumab) and p40 chains shared by IL12 and IL23 (ustekinumab) have been already in clinical practice. There are also other small molecules in clinical trials: mongersen, tafacitinib, and ozanimod. Mongersen supports immunosuppressive activity of TGFβ; it has been tried for the treatment of CD. Tofacitinib inhibits activity of JAK kinases; it was shown to be effective in UC management. Ozanimod interferes with migrations of activated T cells to the site of inflammation and is a promising drug for the UC treatment.

Key words:
Crohn′s disease – mongersen – monoclonal antibodies – ozanimod – tofacitinib – ulcerative colitis


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