Pituitary adenomas – where is the treatment heading at the beginning of the 21st century?

Authors: J. Marek
Authors‘ workplace: III. interní klinika 1. lékařské fakulty UK a VFN Praha, přednosta prof. MUDr. Štěpán Svačina, DrSc., MBA
Published in: Vnitř Lék 2010; 56(7): 690-694
Category: 80th Birthday - Jaroslava Blahoše, MD, DrSc.


To treat pituitary adenomas, three modes of treatment are usually combined: neurosurgery, radiation and pharmacological. Prolactinomas are an exception with predominantly pharmacological management. Patients with acromegaly are usually diagnosed late and thus many neurosurgeries fail to completely remove the adenoma. Any residual tumour tissue is usually irradiated with the Leksell Gamma Knife, and dopamine agonists, somatostatine analogues or growth hormone receptor antagonists are used to normalize the hormonal hypersecretion until the complete effect of the radiation. The same surgical and Gamma Knife procedures are used in patients with the Cushing’s disease and TSH‑secreting adenomas. Ketoconazole, metyrapone and cabergoline are used until the radiation effect in the Cushing’s disease is complete, similarly, somatostatine analogues are used in TSH‑secreting adenomas. Nonfunctional adenomas are less responsive to pharmacological treatment. Proautophagic cytostatic temozolamide has been used in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas.

Key words:
pituitary adenomas – prolactinomas – acromegaly – Cushing’s diseases – TSH‑secreting adenomas – clinically non‑functional pituitary adenomas – treatment


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