Základy kognitivní, afektivní a sociální neurovědy
XIX. Mozek a stres

Authors: F. Koukolík
Authors‘ workplace: Oddělení patologie a molekulární medicíny, Národní referenční laboratoř prionových chorob, Thomayerova nemocnice, Praha ;  Primář: MUDr. František Koukolík DrSc.
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2012; 92(6): 311-316
Category: Editorial


Walter Cannon, at the beginning of the 20th century, expanded upon Claude Bernard’s (1878) view of a flexibly stable “mileu interieur” in his discovery of the response of the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system to stress. Hans Selye described in the 1950s the general adaptation syndrome and Sterling and Eyer (1988) formulated allostasis and allostatic load: key of stress processes is the brain. Distributed, dynamic, and plastic neural circuitry coordinates, monitors, and calibrates stress response systems to meet the demands imposed by particular stressor. These processes (allostasis) can be adaptive in the short term and maladaptive (allostatic load) in the long term. Collective stress responses are mediated by circuits in the limbic forebrain, the hypothalamus and the brainstem. Individual neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and steroid stress mediators have overlapping temporal and spatial niches. Links exist to socioeconomic status, health, and disease. Acute stress shifts priority towards the processing of emotionally significant stimuli at the cost of functional memory performance. Mindfulness-based stress reduction training has an impact on intrinsic brain connectivity.

Key words:
stress, allostasis, allostatic load, brain


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