Základy kognitivní, afektivní a sociální neurovědy
XIX. Mozek a stres


Authors: F. Koukolík
Authors‘ workplace: Oddělení patologie a molekulární medicíny, Národní referenční laboratoř prionových chorob, Thomayerova nemocnice, Praha ;  Primář: MUDr. František Koukolík DrSc.
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2012; 92(6): 311-316
Category: Editorial

Overview

Walter Cannon, at the beginning of the 20th century, expanded upon Claude Bernard’s (1878) view of a flexibly stable “mileu interieur” in his discovery of the response of the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system to stress. Hans Selye described in the 1950s the general adaptation syndrome and Sterling and Eyer (1988) formulated allostasis and allostatic load: key of stress processes is the brain. Distributed, dynamic, and plastic neural circuitry coordinates, monitors, and calibrates stress response systems to meet the demands imposed by particular stressor. These processes (allostasis) can be adaptive in the short term and maladaptive (allostatic load) in the long term. Collective stress responses are mediated by circuits in the limbic forebrain, the hypothalamus and the brainstem. Individual neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and steroid stress mediators have overlapping temporal and spatial niches. Links exist to socioeconomic status, health, and disease. Acute stress shifts priority towards the processing of emotionally significant stimuli at the cost of functional memory performance. Mindfulness-based stress reduction training has an impact on intrinsic brain connectivity.

Key words:
stress, allostasis, allostatic load, brain


Sources

1. Adamec R., Holmes A., Blundell J. Vulnerability to lasting anxiogenic effects of brief exposure to predator stimuli: sex, serotonin and other factors relevance to PTSD. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2008; 32, p. 1287–1292.

2. Albers E.M., Riksen-Walraven J.M., Sweep J.C., et al. Maternal behavior predicts infant cortisol recovery from mild everyday stressor. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2008; 49, p. 97–103.

3. Bremner J.D., Randall P., Scott T., et al. MRI-based measurement of hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152, p. 624–629.

4. Bueller J.A., Aftab M., Sen S., et al. BDNF Val66 Met al.lele is associated with reduced hippocampal volume in healthy subjects. Biol Psychiatry 2006; 59, p. 812–815.

5. Buss C., Lord C., Wadiwalla M., et al. Maternal care modulates the relationship between prenatal risk and hippocampal volume in women but not in men. J Neurosci 2007; 27, p. 2592–2595.

6. Cannon W.B. Stresses and strains of homeostasis. Am J Med Sci 1935; 189, p. 1–14.

7. Cohen R.A., Grieve S., Hoth K.F., et al. Early life stress and morphometry of the adult anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nuclei. Biol Psychiatry 2006, 59, p. 975–982.

8. Farb N.A., Anderson A.K., Mayberg H., et al. Minding one´s emotion: mindfullness training alters the neural expression of sadness. Emotion 2010; 10, p. 25–33.

9. Ganzel B.L., Morris P.A., Wethington E. Allostasis and the human brain: integrating models of stress from the social nad life sciences. Psychol Rev 2010; 117, p. 134–174.

10. Gianaros P.J., Horenstein J.A., Cohen S., et al. Perigenual anterior cingulate morphology covaries with perceived social standing. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2007; 2, p. 161–173.

11. Gianaros P.J., Hariri A.R., Sheu K.L., et al. Preclinical atherosclerosis covaries with individual differences in reactivity and functional connectivity of the amygdala. Biol Psychiatry 2009; 65, p. 943–950.

12. Gould E., McEwen B.S., Tanapat P., et al. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult tree shrew is regulates by pychosocial stress and NMDA receptor activation. J Neurosci 1997; 17, p. 2492–2498.

13. Chen Y., Brunson K.L., Muller M.B., et al. Immunocytochemical distribution of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type-1 (CRF 1)-like immunoreactivity in the mouse brain: light microscopy analysis using an antibody directed against the C-terminus. J Comp Neurol 2000; 420, p. 305–323.

14. Joëls M., Karst H., Krugers H.J., et al. Chronic stress: implications for neuronal morphology function and neurogenesis. Front Neuroendocrinol 2007; 28, p. 72-96.

15. Joëls M., Baram T.Z. The neuro-symphony of stress. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009; 10, p. 459–466.

16. Kabat-Zinn J. Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York, N. Y: Dell Publishing, 1990.

17. Kaplan J.R., Adams M.R., Anthony M.S., et al. Dominant social status and contraceptive hormone treatment inhibit atherogenesis in premenopausal monkeys. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995; 15, p. 2094–2100.

18. Kilpatrick L.A., Sueynobu B.Y., Smith S.R., et al. Impact of mindfulness-based stress Reduction training on intrinsic brain connectivity. NeuroImage 2011; 56, p. 290–298.

19. Koukolík F. Já. O mozku, vědomí a sebeuvědomování. Praha: Karolinum, 2012/2013 (v tisku).

20. Koukolík F. Funkční systémy lidského mozku. Norma a poruchy. 3. rozšířené a přepracované vydání. Praha: Galén, 2012.

21. Lazar S.W., Kerr, C.E., Wasserman R.H., et al. Meditation experience is associated with increases cortical thickness. Neuroreport 2005; 16, p. 1893–1897.

22. Linhorst A.C., Reul J.M. Stress and the brain: solving the puzzle using microdialysis. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2008; 90, p. 163–173.

23. Lupien S., Fiocco A., Wan N., et al. Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005; 30, p. 225–242.

24. Lupien S., McEwen B.S., Gunar M.R., et al. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition Nat Rev Neurosci 2009; 10, p. 434–445.

25. Marmot M. Social differentials in health within and between populations. Daedalus 1994; 123, p. 197–216.

26. Marsland A.L., Petersen K.L., Sathanoori R., et al. Interleukin-6 covaries inversely with cognitive performance among middle-aged community volunteers. Psychosom Med 2006; 68, p. 895–903.

27. Marsland A.L., Gianaros P.J., Abramowich S.M., et al. 2 Inteleukin-6 covaries inversely with hippocampal grey matter volume in middle aged adults. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 64, p. 484–490.

28. McEwen B.S., Stellar E. Stress and the individual. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153, p. 2093–2101.

29. McEwen B.S., Gianaros P.J. Stress and allostasis-induced brain plasticity. Annu Rev Med 2011; 62: p. 431–445.

30. McGowan P.O., Sasaki A, D´Alesio A.C., et al. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nature Neurosci 2009; 12, p. 342–348.

31. O’Connor T.G., Ben Shlomo Y., Heron J. Prenatal anxiety predicts individual differences in cortisol in pre-adolescent children. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58, p. 211–217.

32. Oei NYL, Veer I.M., Wolf O.T., et al. Stress shifts brain activations towards ventral „affective“ areas durign emotional distraction. SCAN 2012; 7: p. 404–412.

33. Perlman W.R., Webster M.J., Herman M.M., et al. Age-related differences in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the human brain. Neurobiol Aging 2007; 28, p. 447–458.

34. Sapolsky R., Krey J., McEwen B.S. The neuroendocinology of stress and aging: the glucocorticoide cascade hypothesis. Endocr Rev 1986; 7, p. 284–301.

35. Seeley W.W., Menon V, Schatzberg A.F., et al. Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive control. J Neurosci 2007; 27, p. 2349–2356.

36. Selye H. The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1956.

37. Sheline Y.I. Neuroimaging studies of mood disorder effects on the brain. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 54, p. 338–352.

38. Smith S.M., Fox P.T., Miller K.L., et al. Correspondence of the brai´s functional architecture during activations and rest. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009, 106, p. 13040–13045.

39. Starkman M.N., Gebarski S.S., Berent S., et al. Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in patients with Cushing´s syndrome. Biol Psychiatry 1992; 32, p. 756–765.

40. Starkman M.N., Giordani B., Gebarski S.S., et al. Decrease in cortisol reverses human hippocampal atrophy following treatment of Cushing´s disease. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46, p. 1595–1602.

41. Starkman M.N., Giordani B., Gebarski S.S., et al. Improvement in learning associated with increases in hippocampal formation volume. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 53, p. 223–238.

42. Sterling P., Eyer J. Allostasis: a new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In: Fisher S, Reason J (Eds.) Handbook of life stress, cognition, and health. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, 1988, p. 62–649.

43. Szesko O.R., Lipsky R., Menscthel C., et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism and volume of the hippocampal formation. Mol Psychiatry 2005; 10, p. 631–636.

44. Ulrich-Lai Y.M., Herman J.P. Neural regulation of endocrine and autonomic stress response. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009; 10, p. 397–409.

45. Valentino R.J., Van Bokstaele E. Convergent regulation of locus coeruleus activity as an adaptive response to stress. Eur J Pharmacol 2008; 583, p. 194–203.

46. Vyas A., Mitra R., Rao B.S.S., et al. Chronic stress induces constraining patterns of dendritic remodeling in hippocampal and amygdaloid neurons J Neurosci 2002; 22, p. 6810–6818.

47. Vythilingam M., Heim Ch., Newport J., et al. Childhood trauma associated with smaller hippocampal volume in women with major depression. Am J Psychiatry 2002, 159, p. 2072–2080.

Labels
General practitioner for children and adolescents General practitioner for adults
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account