Bacterial Infection as a Cause of Infertility in Humans


Authors: Sleha Radek 1,2;  Boštíková Vanda 1;  Salavec Miloslav 3;  Mosio Petra 2;  Kusáková Eva 2;  Kukla Rudolf 2;  Mazurová Jaroslava 2;  Špliňo Miroslav 1
Authors‘ workplace: Katedra epidemiologie, Fakulta vojenského zdravotnictví, Univerzita obrany, Hradec Králové 1;  Katedra biologických a biochemických věd, Fakulta chemicko-technologická, Univerzita Pardubice, Pardubice 2;  Klinika a katedra nemocí kožních a pohlavních FN a LF UK, Hradec Králové 3
Published in: Epidemiol. Mikrobiol. Imunol. 62, 2013, č. 1, s. 26-32

Overview

Microorganisms which are present in the human urogenital tract may be involved in the development of inflammatory changes negatively affecting the genitals in both men and women. Pathological conditions due to inflammatory alterations may result in complete loss of fertility. Infections of the urogenital tract are responsible for 15% of all cases of infertility in couples.

Negative impact on the human reproduction is mainly caused by direct damage to the genital tract mucosa by metabolic products of microorganisms or by induction of pro-inflammatory responses of the body. Another mechanism is indirect impact of microorganisms on the genital function. Moreover, the effect of bacteria on spermatogenesis and semen quality is important in men.

Infections mainly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae represent the greatest risk in terms of permanent consequences for human reproduc­tion. As for other sexually transmitted disorders, such as infections caused by Gardnerella vaginalis, urogenital mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas, the link between infectio­n and infertility has been intensively researched.

Keywords:
urogenital infections – infertility – Neisseria gonorrhoeaeChlamydia trachomatisMycoplasma sp. – Ureaplasma sp. – Gardnerella vaginalis


Sources

1. Pellati, D., Mylonakis, I., Bertoloni, G., Fiore, C., Andrisani, A., Ambrosini, G., Armanini, D. Genital tract infections and infertility. Eur. J. Obst. Gyn. Reprod. Biol., 2008, 140, s. 3–11.

2. Keck, C., Gerber-Schäfer, C., Clad, A., Wilhelm, C., Breckwoldt, M. Seminal tract infections: impact on male fertility and treatment options. Hum. Reprod. Update, 1998, 4, s. 891–903.

3. Moretti, E., Capitani, S., Figura, N., Pammolli, A., Frederico, M. G., Giannerini, V., Collodel, G. The presence of bacteria species in semen and sperm quality. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., 2009, 26, s. 47–56.

4. Diemer, T., Huwe, P., Ludwig, M., Hauck, E. W., Weidner, W. Urogenital infection and sperm motility. Andrologia, 2003, 35, s. 283–287.

5. World Health Organisation Prevalence and incidence of selected sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods and results used by WHO to generate 2005 estimates. Dostupné na www: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/rtis/9789241502450/en/index.html.

6. Ústav zdravotnických informací a statistiky ČR Infekční nemoci v České republice v roce 2010. Dostupné na www: http://www.uzis.cz/rychle-informace/infekcni-nemoci-ceske-republice-roce-2010.

7. Gdoura, R., Kchaou, W., Chaari, C., Znazen, A., Keskes, L., Rebai, T., Hammami, A. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infec­tions and semen quality of infertile men. Infect. Dis., 2007, 7, s. 1–9.

8. Vanousova, D., Zakoucka, H., Jilich, D., Rozsypal, H., Stankova, M., Zufanova, S., Vojackova, N., Hercogova, J., Marvan, J., Machala, L. First detection of Chlamydia trachomatis LGV biovar in the Czech Republic, 2010–2011. Euro Surveill., 2012, 17, pii: 20055.

9. Paavonen, J., Eggert-Kruse, W. Chlamydia trachomatis: impact on human reproduction. Hum. Reprod. Upd., 1999, 5, s. 433–447.

10. Horner, P. Chlamydia trachomatis and non-gonococcal urethritis. Medicine, 2005, 33, s. 40–42.

11. Taylor, B. D., Haggerty, C. L. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges. Infect. Drug Resist., 2011, 4, s. 19–29.

12. Domeika, M., Domeika, K., Paavonen, J., Mårdh, P. A., Witkin, S. S. Humoral immune response to conserved epitopes of Chlamydia trachomatis and human 60-kDa heat-schock protein in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. J. Infect. Dis., 1998, 177, s. 714–719.

13. Stephens, A. J., Aubuchon, M., Schust, D. J. Antichlamydial antibodies, human fertility and pregnancy wastage. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gyn., 2011, doi:10.1155/2011/525182.

14. Gonzales, G. F., Munoz, G., Sánchez, R., Henkel, R., Gellegos-Avila, G., Díaz-Gutierrez, Vigil, P., Vásquez, F., Kortebani, G., Mazzolli, A., Bustos-Obregón, E. Update on the impact of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on male fertility. Andrologia, 2004, 36, s. 1–23.

15. Woods, C. R. Gonococcal infections in neonates and young children. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 2005, 16, s. 258–270.

16. Davan, L. Transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from a toilet seat. Sex Transm. Infect., 2004, 80, s. 327.

17. Walker, C. K., Sweet, R. L. Gonorrhea infection in women: prevalence, effects, screening, and management. Int. J. Womens Health, 2011, 3, s. 197–206.

18. Velicko, I., Unemo, M. Recent trends in gonorrhoea and syphilis epidemiology in Sweden: 2007 to 2011. Euro Surveill., 2012, 17.

19. Allen, V. G, Farell, D. J., Rebbapragada, A., Tan, J., Tijet, N., Perusini, S. J., Towns, L., Lo, S., Low, D. E., Melano, R. G. Molecular Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Ontario, Canada. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2011, 55, s. 703–712.

20. Bayraktar, M. R., Ozerol, I. H., Gucluer, N., Celik, O. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant women. Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2010, 14, s. e90–95.

21. Guven, M. A., Dilek, U., Pata, O., Dilek, S., Ciragil, P. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infections in the unexplained infertile women. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet, 2007, 276, s. 219–223.

22. Zdrodowska-Stefanov, B. Klosowska, W. M., Ostaszewska-Puchalska, I., Bulhak-Koziol, V., Kotowicz, B. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in male urethritis and its complications. Adv. Med. Sci., 2006, 51, s. 254–257.

23. Aroutcheva, A. A., Simoes, J. A., Behbakht, K., Faro, S. Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis and from patients with healthy vaginal ecosystems. Clin. Infect. Dis., 2001, 33, s. 1022–1027.

24. Amaya, R. A., Al-Dossary, F., Demmler, G. J. Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia in a premature nenonate. J. Perinatol., 2002, 22, s. 585–587.

25. Schwebke, J. R., Rivers, C., Lee, J. Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis in male sexual partners of women with and without bacterial vaginosis. Sexual Trans. Dis., 2009, 36, s. 92–94.

26. Andrade-Rocha, F. T. Colonization of Gardnerella vaginalis in semen of infertile men: Prevalence, influence on sperm charac­teristics, relationship with leukocyte concentration and clinical significance. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest., 2009, 68, s. 134–136.

27. Lagacé-Wiens, P. R. S., Ng, B., Reimer, A., Burdz, T., Wiebe, D., Bernard, K. Gardnerella vaginalis Bacteremia in a Previously Healthy Man: Case Report and Characterization of the Isolate. J. Clin. Microb., 2008, 46, s. 804–806.

28. Pychlíková, Y., Hanuš, T., Macek, P., Ptáková, M., Rejzková, L., Dvořáček, J. Urogenitální tuberkulóza – minulost, současnost a budoucnost. Čes. Urol., 2008, 12, s. 14–20.

29. Rozati, R., Roopa, S., Rajeshwari, C. N. Evaluation of woman with infertility and genital tuberculosis. J. Obstet. Gynecol. India, 2006, 56, s. 423–426.

30. Kumar, P., Shah, N. P., Singhal, A., Chauhan, D. S., Katoch, V. M., Mittal, S., Kumar, S., Singh, M. K., Datta Gupta, S., Prasad, H. K. Association of tuberculous endometritis with infertility and other gynecological complaints of women in India. J. Clin. Microb., 2008, 46, s. 4068–4070.

31. Jahromi, B. N., Parsanezhad, M. E., Ghane-Shirazi, R. Female genital tuberculosis and infertility. Inter. J. Gynec. Obstet., 2001, 75, s. 269–272.

32. Fox, R., Mears, J. Female genital tract Mycobacterium chelonae infection. J. Obstet. Gynaecol., 2004, 24, s. 326.

33. Malhotra, H. Genital tuberculosis. Apollo Med., 2012, s. 224–227.

34. Kumar, R. Reproductive tract tuberculosis and male infertility. Indian J. Urol., 2008, 24, s. 392–395.

35. Hajishafiha, M., Ghasemi-rad, M., Memari, A., Naji, S., Mladkova, N., Saeedi, V. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infectin on preganncy rates and early pregnancy loss after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Int. J. Womens Health, 2011, 3, s. 329–335.

36. Collodel, G., Moretti, E., Campagna, M. S., Capitani, S., Lenzi, C., Figura, N. Infection by CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains may contribute to alter the sperm quality of men with fertility disorders and increase the systemic levels of TNF-α. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2010, 55, s. 94–100.

37. Mégraud, F., Lehours, P. Helicobacter pylori detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 2007, 20, s. 280–322.

38. Švestka, T. Infekce Helicobacter pylori. Medicína v praxi, 2011, 8, s. 123–126.

39. Manges, A. R., Johnson, J. R., Foxman, B., O´Bryan, T. T., Fullerton, K. E., Riley, L. W. Widespread distribution of urinary tract infections caused by a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli clonal group. N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 345, s. 1007–1013.

40. Ludwig, M. Diagnosis and therapy of acute prostatitis, epididymitis and orchitis. Andrologia, 2008, 40, s. 76–80.

Labels
Hygiene and epidemiology Medical virology Clinical microbiology
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account