Clinical classification and scoring systems in heart failure

Authors: M. Špinarová 1;  L. Špinarová 1;  J. Špinar 2,3
Authors‘ workplace: I. interní kardioangiologická klinika LF MU a FN u sv. Anny v Brně 1;  Interní kardiologická klinika LF MU a FN Brno 2;  Mezinárodní centrum klinického výzkumu, FN u sv. Anny v Brně 3
Published in: Kardiol Rev Int Med 2015, 17(2): 131-135
Category: Cardiology Review


Acute and chronic heart failure remains a diagnosis with poor prognosis. Therefore an exact description of the severity of the disease is crucial. Classification schemes such as NYHA classification, Forrester classification, Kilip classification or Meszaros classification of signs of congestion on chest x-ray are used. We do not have a good prognostic classification of heart failure. Hyponatraemia, renal insufficiency, old age, but also comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, hypertension or atrial fibrillation seem to be important prognostic markers.

heart failure – classification – prognosis


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Paediatric cardiology Internal medicine Cardiac surgery Cardiology
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