Transcranial colour-coded duplex sonography to evaluate intracranial arteries in patients with cerebrovascular stenooclusive disease – review

Authors: J. Žižka
Authors‘ workplace: I. interní klinika, Fakultní Thomayerova nemocnice, Praha
Published in: Kardiol Rev Int Med 2010, 12(2): 88-93


Transcranial colour-coded duplex sonography is a relatively new imaging technique that allows examining, through an intact scull, of the morphology and haemodynamic situation within the intracranial circulation as well as it allows depiction of other, extra-vascular, intracranial structures. Compared to the earlier introduced transcranial dopplerometry, this technique allows direct imaging of the examined structures and amending of the insonation angle during vascular flow measurement, thus enabling measurement of the real flow speed. This is a non-invasive, relatively inexpensive and easy to repeat technique that may be performed at the patient’s bed. Poor quality of acoustic window in some patients is the main disadvantage that precludes proper assessment in 20% of patients. This drawback might to some extent be eliminated when an ultrasound contrast agent is used and thus, in total, considering potential use of echo-contrast, more than 90% of patients can be examined. This review focuses on the main principles behind this technique and its use in the diagnostics of intracranial artery stenoses and occlusions and its significance for the evaluation of haemodynamic consequences of extracranial artery stenoses or occlusions for cerebral circulation.

sonography – cerebrovascular disease – intracranial stenosis – intracranial occlusion – intracranial collateral pathways


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Paediatric cardiology Internal medicine Cardiac surgery Cardiology
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