Authors: S. Agrawal ;  M. Král ;  A. Patel *
Authors‘ workplace: Department of Urology, St. Mary’s Hospital at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial School of Medicine, London *
Published in: Urol List 2012; 10(1): 36-41


Retrograde Intra-Renal Surgery (RIRS) has undergone numerous technological advances since Hugh Hampton Young’s first foray in 1912 into the megaureter of a two month-old child using a 12Fr cystoscope, and the later introduction of rod lens optics by Harold Hopkins in 1960 [1,2]. A diverse array of equipment and accessories is available in modern practice and surgeons are increasingly tackling stone disease that previously would have required open or percutaneous surgery (PCNL), using a RIRS approach. This paper is based on the ureteroscopy part of the ESU Stone course, and aims to provided an update on recent advances and define a new and evolving framework for managing more complex stones.

Key words:
retrograde intra-renal surgery, urolithiasis, principles, therapeutic concepts


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