Tumor Microenvironment

Authors: Š. Novák 1,2;  V. Bandurová 1,2;  A. Mifková 1,2;  D. Kalfeřt 1;  Z. Fík 1;  P. Lukeš 1;  P. Szabó 2,3;  J. Plzák 1;  K. Smetana Jr. 2,3
Published in: Otorinolaryng. a Foniat. /Prague/, 68, 2019, No. 1, pp. 41-51.
Category: Review Article


Cancer microenvironment plays an essential role in promoting the growth, proliferation and ability of cancer cells to establish metastatic deposits. This microenvironment consists predominantly of cancer-associated fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix produced by them, immune cells (macrophages, granulocytes, mast cells and lymphocytes), blood vessels, adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. These cells interact with each other, both via intercellular communication and signal molecules. The signal molecules include, for example, growth factors, chemokines, interleukins or galectins. In the review article, we present the current knowledge about individual cell groups and their interaction. The presented information relates mainly to the already applied or future prospective clinical use.


cancer-associated fibroblasts – extracellular matrix – immune cells – stem cells – growth factors – chemokines – interleukins – galectin


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