Hip fractures


Authors: Drahomíra Weisová;  Martin Salášek;  Tomáš Pavelka
Authors‘ workplace: Klinika ortopedie a traumatologie pohybového ústrojí LF UK a FN, Plzeň
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2013; 152: 219-225
Category: Review Article

Overview

Hip fractures are ranked among the frequent injuries. These fractures have been often coupled with high energy trauma in children and in patients with normal bone structure, low energy trauma and osteoporotic fracture (fragility fracture) is typical in elder patients. Hip fractures are divided into five groups: femoral head fracture, femoral neck fracture, pertrochanteric, intertrochateric and subtrochanteric fracture. Surgical treatment is indicated in all patients unless contraindications are present. Long bed rest has been accompanied by a high risk of development of thromboembolic disease, pneumonia and bed sore. Healing in the wrong position and nonunions are often the result of conservative treatment. Screw osteosynthesis is performed in isolated femoral head factures. Three cannulated screws or a DHS plate (dynamic hip screw) are used in fractures of the femoral neck with normal femoral head perfusion, total hip replacement is recommended in elder patients and in case of loss of blood supply of the femoral head. Pertrochanteric and intertrochanteric fractures can be stabilized by the femoral nails (PFN, PFN A, PFH – proximal femoral nail), nails are suitable for minimally invasive insertion and provide higher stability in the shaft, or plates (DHS) designed for stable pertronchanteric and intertrochanteric fractures. Subtrochanteric fractures can be fixed also intramedullary (nails – PFN long, PFN A long) and extramedullary (plates - DCS dynamic condylar screw, proximal femoral LCP – locking compression plate). Open reduction with internal plate fixation is advantageous for pathological fractures, as biopsy sampling can be performed. Hip fracture rehabilitation is integral part of the treatment, including walking on crutches or with a walker with partial weight bearing for at least six weeks.

Keywords:
proximal femur – fracture – hip – femoral nails – plate osteosynthesis – osteoporosis


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