EVI1 and Its Role in Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Myeloid Leukemia and Other Malignant Diseases


Authors: O. Fuchs
Authors‘ workplace: ÚHKT, Praha
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2006; 145: 619-624
Category: Review Article

Overview

The ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) gene was identified as a common locus of retroviral integration in myeloid tumors found in mice. EVI1 gene is highly conserved through evolution and human gene EVI1 on chromosome 3q26 encodes zinc fingers-containing transcription factor. EVI1 is expressed in nonhematopoietic tissues but not in normal blood or bone marrow. EVI1 was detected in hematopoietic cells in retrovirus-induced myeloid leukemias in mice and several reports documented EVI1 expression in human myelodysplastic syndromes and other hematologic malignancies without 3q26 translocations. EVI1 is abnormally expressed in human myeloid leukemias that are associated with the t(3;3)(q21;q26), t(3;21)(q26;q22), inv(3)(q21q26) and other chromosomal rearrangements. EVI1 is overexpressed in some ovarian cancers and human colon cancer cell lines and may play a role in the initiation and/or progression of solid tumors, as well as hematopoietic malignancies. EVI1 is a transcriptional repressor which inhibits transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) family signalling by binding signal transducers (Smad proteins) and recruiting transcriptional corepressors. TGFß is an important regulator of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration of cells. EVI1 inhibits TGFß-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of EVI1 function by small interference RNA increases the sensitivity of malignant cells to TGFß-mediated or other inducer-mediated apoptosis. Overexpressed EVI-1 blocks granulocyte and erythroid differentiation and possess the ability of growth promotion in some types of cells. EVI1 functions in some cases as a transcriptional activator which stimulates for example GATA2 and GATA3 promoters. The study of EVI1 target genes will help to clear the mechanism by which EVI1 upregulates cell proliferation, impairs cell differentiation, and induces cell transformation. 

Key words:
EVI1, myeloid leukemia, chromosomal rearrangements, colon cancer, transforming growth factor beta.


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