Arterial Hypertension in Children and Adolescents


Authors: T. Seeman
Authors‘ workplace: Pediatrická klinika 2. LF UK a FNM, Praha
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2006; 145: 625-632
Category: Review Article

Overview

Hypertension is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood is defined as blood pressure > 95. percentile for healthy children population. The prevalence of hypertension in childhood is considerably lower than in adults and is about 1%. The aetiology of hypertension in childhood differs from adult population - in children secondary forms are more common than primary, however, in adolescents primary form already prevails. In general, the younger the child and the higher the blood pressure, the more probably it is a secondary form of hypertension. The most common causes of secondary hypertension are renal diseases (renoparenchymal or renovascular). Cardiac diseases (aortic isthmus stenosis), endocrinopathies, central nervous system disorders or use of hypertensinogenic drugs are less frequent causes of secondary hypertension. Each child with hypertension has to be carefully examined; the extent of the examination depends on the age of the child and severity of hypertension. The main task for the investigation is to exclude or reveal secondary form of hypertension, which could be causally treated (e.g. angioplasty in renal artery stenosis). Treatment of hypertension is non-pharmacological and pharmacological (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, angiotensin receptor blockers). 

Key words:
arterial hypertension, blood pressure, children.


Labels
Addictology Allergology and clinical immunology Angiology Audiology Clinical biochemistry Dermatology & STDs Paediatric gastroenterology Paediatric surgery Paediatric cardiology Paediatric neurology Paediatric ENT Paediatric psychiatry Paediatric rheumatology Diabetology Pharmacy Vascular surgery Pain management fenix.admin.empty
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