Sepsis mimics


Authors: Thomas Karvuni 1,2;  Martin Matějovič 1,2
Authors‘ workplace: I. interní klinika LF UK a FN Plzeň 1;  Biomedicínské centrum LF UK, Plzeň 2
Published in: Vnitř Lék 2019; 65(6): 440-448
Category: Review

Overview

Number of identical pathophysiological mechanisms is shared by sepsis and other clinical conditions and diseases. This could lead to their nearly similar clinical phenotype. However, the early discrimination of them is crucial – treatment of particular diseases differs significantly, and the mortality of the vast majority of them is considerable. The differential diagnostics possibilities together with brief description of selected clinical conditions are discussed within the review.

Keywords:

organ dysfunction – sepsis – sepsis mimics


Sources
  1. Fleischmann C, Scherag A, Adhikari NK et al. Assessment of global incidence and mortality of hospital-treated sepsis. Current estimates and limitations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016; 193(3): 259–272. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201504–0781OC>.
  2. Cohen J, Vincent JL, Adhikari NK et al. Sepsis: a roadmap for future research. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; 15(5): 581–614. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473–3099(15)70112-X>. Erratum in Corrections. [Lancet Infect Dis 2015].
  3. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock. JAMA 2016; 315(8): 801–810. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.0287>.
  4. Gupta S, Sakhuja A, Kumar G et al. Culture-negative severe sepsis: nationwide trends and outcomes. Chest 2016; 150(6): 1251–1259. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2016.08.1460>.
  5. Tillmann B, Wunsch H. Epidemiology and outcomes. Crit Care Clin 2018; 34(1): 15–27. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccc.2017.08.001>.
  6. Calvano SE, Xiao W, Richards DR et al. A network-based analysis of systemic inflammation in humans. Nature 2005; 437(7061): 1032–1037. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature03985>. Erratum in Nature 2005; 438(7068): 696.
  7. Xiao W, Mindrinos MN, Seok J et al. A genomic storm in critically ill injured humans. J Exp Med 2011; 208(13): 2581–2590. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20111354>.
  8. Larosa SP, Opal SM. Immune aspects of sepsis and hope for new therapeutics. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2012; 14(5): 474–483. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908–012–0276–2>.
  9. Kaukonen KM, Bailey M, Pilcher D et al. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria in defining severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(17): 1629–1638. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1415236>.
  10. Long B, Koyfman A. Clinical mimics: an emergency medicine-focused review of sepsis mimics. J Emerg Med 2017; 52(1): 34–42. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2016.07.102>.
  11. Larsen FF, Petersen JA. Novel biomarkers for sepsis: a narrative review. Eur J Intern Med 2017; 45: 46–50. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2017.09.030>.
  12. Simon L, Gauvin F, Amre DK et al. Serum prokalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels as markers of bacterial infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39(2): 206–217. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/421997>. Erratum in Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40(9): 1386–1388.
  13. Wacker C, PrknoA, Brunkhorst FM et al. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker for sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13(5): 426–435. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473–3099(12)70323–7>.
  14. van Engelen TSR, Wiersinga WJ, Scicluna BP et al. Biomarkers of sepsis. Crit Care Clin 2018; 34(1): 139–152. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccc.2017.08.010>.
  15. Reinhart K, Meisner M. Biomarkers in the critically ill patient: procalcitonin. Crit Care Clin 2011; 27(2): 253–263. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccc.2011.01.002>.
  16. Sakr Y, Burgett U, Nacul FE et al. Lipopolysacharide binding protein in a surgical intensive care unit: a marker of sepsis? Crit Care Med 2008; 36(7): 2014–2022. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e31817b86e3>.
  17. Bouchon A, Facchetti F, Weingand MA et al. sTREM-1 amplifies inflammation and is a crucial mediator of septic shock. Nature 2001; 410(6832): 1103–1107. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35074114>.
  18. Wu Y, Wang F, Fan X et al. Accuracy of plasma sTREM-1 for sepsis diagnosis in systemic inflammatory patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care 2012; 16(6): R229. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc11884>.
  19. Backes Y, van der Sluijs KF, Mackie DP et al. Usefulness of suPAR as a biological marker in patients with systemic inflammation of infection: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med 2012; 38(9): 1418–1428. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134–012–2613–1>.
  20. Yaegashi Y, Shirakawa K, Sato N et al. Evaluation of a newly identified soluble CD14 subtype as a marker for sepsis. J Infect Chemother 2005; 11(5): 234–238. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10156–005–0400–4>.
  21. Shozushima T, Takahashi G, Matsumoto N at al. Usefulness of presepsin (sCD14-ST) measurements as a marker for the diagnosis and severity of sepsis that satisfied diagnostic criteria of systemic inflammatory response system. J Infect Chemother 2011; 17(6): 764–749. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10156–011–0254-x>.
  22. Zhang J, Hu ZD, Song J et al. Diagnostic value of presepsin for sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94(47): e2158. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002158>.
  23. Brodska H, Valenta J, Pelinkova K et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of presepsin vs. established biomarkers in critically ill patients with sepsis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Clin Chem Lab Med 2018; 56(4): 658–668. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2017–0839>.
  24. Tanimura S, Fujieda Y, Kono M et al. Clinical significance of plasma presepsin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Mod Rheumatol 2018; 28(5): 865–871. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14397595.2017.1408755>.
  25. Lorcerie B, Audia S, Samson M et al. Diagnosis of hyperferritinemia in routine clinical practice. Presse Med 2017; 46(12 Pt 2): e329-e338. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2017.09.028>.
  26. Lachmann G, Spies C, Schenk T et al. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: potentially underdiagnosed in intensive care units. Shock 2018; 50(2): 149–155. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001048>.
  27. Šrámek J, Karvunidis T, Lysák D et al. Hemofagocytární lymfohistiocytóza u dospělých: review a kazuistika. Vnitř Lék 2018; 64(3): 300–307.
  28. Sawhney S, Woo P, Murray KJ. Macrophage activation syndrome: a potentially fatal complication of rheumatic disorders. Arch Dis Child 2001; 85(5): 421–426. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.85.5.421>.
  29. Niece JA, Rogers ZR, Ahmad N et al. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in Texas: observations on ethnicity and race. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010; 54(3): 424–428. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22359>.
  30. Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zerón P, López-Guillermo A et al. Adult haemophagocytic syndrome. Lancet 2014; 383(9927): 1503–15116. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(13)61048-X>. Erratum in Lancet 2014; 383(9927): 1464.
  31. Filipovich A, McClain K, Grom A et al. Histiocytic disorders: recent insights into pathophysiology and practical guidelines. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2010; 16(1 Suppl): S82-S89. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.11.014>.
  32. Dalal BI, Vakil AP, Khare NS et al. Abnormalities of the lymphocyte subsets and their immunophenotype, and their prognostic significance in adult patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Ann Hematol 2015; 94(7): 1111–1117. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277–015–2350-y>.
  33. Henter JI, Elinder G, Soder O et al. Hypercytokinemia in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Blood 1991; 78(11): 2918–2922.
  34. Osugi Y, Hara J, Tagawa S et al. Cytokine production regulating Th1 and Th2 cytokines in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Blood 1997; 89(11): 4100–4103.
  35. Voskoboinik I, Smyth MJ, Trapani JA. Perforin-mediated target-cell death and immune homeostasis. Nat Rev Imunol 2006; 6(12): 940–952. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nri1983>.
  36. Arico M, Janka G, Fischer A et al. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Report of 122 children from the International registry. FHL study group of the Histiocyte society. Leukemia 1996; 10(2): 197–203.
  37. Trottestam H, Horne A, Arico M et al. Chemoimmunotherapy for the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: long-term results of the HLH-94 treatment protocol. Blood 2011; 118(17): 4577–4584. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011–06–356261>.
  38. Cohen LA, Gutierrez L, Weiss A et al. Serum ferritin is derived primarily from macrophages through a nonclassical secretory pathway. Blood 2010; 116(9): 1574–1584. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009–11–253815>.
  39. Allen CE, Yu X, Kozinetz CA et al. Highly elevated ferritin levels and the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008; 50(6): 1227–1235. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.21423>.
  40. Fukaya S, Yasuda S, Hashimoto T et al. Clinical features of haemophagocytic syndrome in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases: analysis of 30 cases. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47(11): 1686–1691. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ken342>.
  41. Deiva K, Mahlaoui N, Beaudonnet F et al. CNS involvement at the onset of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Neurology 2012; 78(15): 1150–1156. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e31824f800a>.
  42. Jovanovic A, Kuzmanovic M, Kravljanac R et al. Central nervous system involvement in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a single-center experience. Pediatr Neurol 2014; 50(3): 233–237. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2013.10.014>.
  43. Henter JI, Horne A, Arico M et al. HLH-2004: diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007; 48(2): 124–131. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.21039>.
  44. Schram AM, Berliner N. How I treat hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the adult patient. Blood 2015; 125(19): 2908–2914. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015–01–551622>.
  45. Henter JI, Samuelsson-Horne A, Arico M et al. Treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with HLH-94 immunotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Blood 2002; 100(7): 2367–2373. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002–01–0172>.
  46. Jordan MB, Allen CE, Weitzman S et al. How I treat hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Blood 2011; 118(15): 4041–4052. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011–03–278127>.
  47. Henter JI, Arico M, Egeler RM et al. HLH-94: a treatment protocol for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. HLH study group of the Histiocyte society. Med Pediatr Oncol 1997; 28(5): 342–347.
  48. Jiang L, Yuan CM, Hubacheck J et al. Variable CD52 expression in mature T cell and NK cell malignancies: implications for alemtuzumab therapy. Br J Haemathol 2009; 145(2): 173–179. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365–2141.2009.07606.x>.
  49. Strout MP, Seropian S, Berliner N. Alemtuzumab as a bridge to allogeneic SCT in atypical hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2010; 7(7): 415–420. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2010.40>.
  50. Parikh SA, Kapoor P, Letendre L et al. Prognostic factors and outcomes of adults with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Mayo Clin Proc 2014; 89(4): 484–492. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.12.012>.
  51. Li J, Wang Q, Zheng W et al. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: clinical analysis of 103 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2014; 93(2): 100–105. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000022>.
  52. George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014; 371(7): 654–666. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353>.
  53. Erkan D, Espinosa G, Cervera R. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: updated diagnostic algorithms. Autoimmun Rev 2010; 10(2): 74–79. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2010.08.005>.
  54. Nayer A, Ortega LM. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: a clinical review. J Nephropathol 2014; 3(1): 9–17. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.12860/jnp.2014.03>.
  55. Cervera R, Piette JC, Font J et al. Antiphospholipid syndrome: clinical and immunlogic manifestations and patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1,000 patients. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46(4): 1019–1027.
  56. Bucciarelli S, Espinosa G, Cervera R et al. Mortality in the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: causes of death and prognostic factors in a series of 250 patients. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54(8): 2568–2576. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.22018>.
  57. Cervera R, Bucciarelli S, Plasín MA et al. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): descriptive analysis of a series of 280 patients from the „CAPS Registry“. J Autoimmun 2009; 32(3–4): 240–245. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2009.02.008>.
  58. Zikos TA, Sokolove J, Ahuja N et al. Eculizumab Induces Sustained Remission in a Patient With Refractory Primary Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome. J Clin Rheumatol 2015; 21(6): 311–313. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000000290>.
  59. Espinosa G, Rodríquez-Pintó I, Cervera R. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: an update. Panminerva Med 2017; 59(3): 254–268. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0031–0808.17.03324–9>.
  60. Cervera R, Rodríquez-Pintó I, Espinosa G. The diagnosis and clinical management of the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: A comprehensive review. J Autoimmun 2018; 92: 1–11. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2018.05.007>.
  61. Maude SL, Frey N, Shaw PA et al. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia. N Engl J Med 2014; 371(16): 1507–1517. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1407222>.
  62. Topp MS, Gokbuget N, Stein AS et al. Safety and activity of blinatumomab for adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16(1): 57–66. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470–2045(14)71170–2>.
  63. Frey NV, Porter DL. Cytokine release syndrome with novel therapeutics for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2016; 2016(1): 567–572. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/asheducation-2016.1.567>.
  64. Karvunidis T, Matějovič M. Vybrané akutní stavy v moderní onkologii. Vnitř Lék 2019; 65(6): 405–415.
  65. Druey KM, Greipp PR. Narrative review: the systemic capillary leak syndrome. Ann Intern Med 2010; 153(2): 90–98. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003–4819–153–2-201007200–00005>.
  66. Dhir V, Aria V, Malav IC et al. Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS): case report and systematic review of cases reported in the last 16 years. Intern Med 2007; 46(12): 899–904. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.46.6129>.
  67. Dowden AM, Rullo OJ, Aziz N et al. Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome: novel therapy for acute attacks. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009; 124(5): 1111–1113. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2009.06.043>.
  68. Johansson BR, Lofdahl CG. Ultrastructure of the microvessels in skeletal muscle in a case of systemic capillary leak syndrome. Acta Med Scand 1979; 206(5): 413–416.
  69. Assaly R, Olson D, Hammersley J et al. Initial evidence of endothelial cell apoptosis as a mechanism of systemic capillary leak syndrome. Chest 2001; 120(4): 1301–1308. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.120.4.1301>.
  70. Xie Z, Ghosg CC, Patel R et al. Vascular endothelial hyperpermeability induces the clinical symptoms of Clarkson disease (the systemic capillary leak syndrome). Blood 2012; 119(18): 4321–4332. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011–08–375816>.
  71. Nagao Y, Harada H, Yamanaka H et al. Possible mediators for systemic capillary leak syndrome. Am J Med 2011; 124(1): e7-e9. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.04.024>.
  72. Gousseff M, Arnaud L, Lambert M et al. The systemic capillary leak syndrome: a case series of 28 patients from a European registry. Ann Intern Med 2011; 154(7): 464–471. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003–4819–154–7-201104050–00004>.
  73. Kapoor P, Greipp PT, Schaefer EW et al. Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson‘s disease): the Mayo clinic experience. Mayo Clin Proc 2010; 85(10): 905–912. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/mcp.2010.0159>.
  74. Lambert M, Launay D, Hachulla E et al. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulins dramatically reverse systemic capillary leak syndrome. Crit Care Med 2008; 36(7): 2184–2187. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e31817d7c71>.
  75. Pineton de Chambrun M, Luyt CE, Beloncle F et al. The Clinical Picture of Severe Systemic Capillary-Leak Syndrome Episodes Requiring ICU Admission. Crit Care Med 2017; 45(7): 1216–1223. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000002496>.
  76. Pineton de Chambrun M, Gousseff M, Mauhin W et al. Intravenous Immunoglobulins Improve Survival in Monoclonal Gammopathy-Associated Systemic Capillary-Leak Syndrome. Am J Med 2017; 130(10): 1219.e19–1219.e27. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.05.023>.
  77. Yabe H, Yabe M, Koike T et al. Rapid improvement of life-threatening capillary leak syndrome after stem cell transplantation by bevacizumab. Blood 2010; 115(13): 2723–2724. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009–11–247056>.
Labels
Diabetology Endocrinology Internal medicine
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account