Vitamin C and its physiological role with respect to the components of the immune system


Authors: D. Holmannová ;  M. Koláčková ;  J. Krejsek
Authors‘ workplace: Ústav klinické imunologie a alergologie Lékařské fakulty UK a FN Hradec Králové, přednosta prof. RNDr. Jan Krejsek, CSc.
Published in: Vnitř Lék 2012; 58(10): 743-749
Category: Reviews

Overview

Vitamin C is a water soluble micronutrient commonly found in our diet which orchestrates the function of both innate and adaptive immune system, influencing both cellular and humoral immune responses. Vitamin C inhibits excessive activation of the immune system to prevent tissue damage, but also supports antibacterial activity, stimulates NK cells and differentiation of Th0 subset into Th1 characterized by interferon γ production. In addition, vitamin C interferes with the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, or with the expression of adhesive molecules. Moreover, vitamin C as an antioxidat protects the immune cells against intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) formed in the inflammatory response. Vitamin C as an enzymatic cofactor is extremely important in maintaining tissue integrity, and plays a crucial role in formation of skin, epithelial and endothelial barriers.

Key words:
vitamin C – immune system – ROS (reactive oxygen species) – RNS (reactive nitrogen species)


Sources

1. Mandl J, Szarka A, Bánhegyi G. Vitamin C: update on physiology and pharmacology. Br J Pharmacol 2009; 157: 1097–1110.

2. Puertollano MA, Puertollano E, de Cienfuegos GÁ et al. Dietary antioxidants: immunity and host defense. Curr Top Med Chem 2011; 11: 1752–1766.

3. Blass SC, Goost H, Tolba RH et al. Time to wound closure in trauma patients with disorders in wound healing is shortened by supplements containing antioxidant micronutrients and glutamine: A PRCT. Clin Nutr 2012; 31: 469–475.

4. Firkle T, Resl V, Racek J et al. Antioxidants and protection of the skin against the effect of ultraviolet rays. Cas Lek Cesk 2000; 139: 358–360.

5. Ma AG, Ge S, Zhang M et al. Antioxidant micronutrients improve intrinsic and UV-induced apoptosis of human lymphocytes particularly in elderly people. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15: 912–917.

6. Murakami K, Inagaki J, Saito M et al. Skin atrophy in cytoplasmic SOD-deficient mice and its complete recovery using a vitamin C derivative. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009; 382: 457–461.

7. Murakami K, Inagaki J, Saito M et al. Complete recovery of skin atrophy and collagen and elastin degeneration using a vitamin C derivative in CuZn-SOD-deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009; 382: 457–461.

8. Rodríguez JA, Nespereira B, Pérez-Ilzarbe M et al. Vitamins C and E prevent endothelial VEGF and VEGFR-2 overexpression induced by porcine hypercholesterolemic LDL. Cardiovasc Res 2005; 65: 665–673.

9. Nakai K, Urushihara M, Kubota Y et al. Ascorbate enhances iNOS activity by increasing tetrahydrobiopterin in RAW 264.7 cells. Free Radic Biol Med 2003; 35: 929–937.

10. Trachootham D, Lu W, Ogasawara MA et al. Redox regulation of cell survival. Antioxid Redox Signal 2008; 10: 1343–1374.

11. Racek J, Holecek V, Trefil L. Antioxidative properties of ascorbic acid. Cas Lek Cesk 2000; 139: 583–587.

12. Chatterjee M, Saluja R, Kumar V et al. Ascorbate sustains neutrophil NOS expression, catalysis, and oxidative burst. Free Radic Biol Med 2008; 45: 1084–1093.

13. Doherty GH. Nitric oxide in neurodegeneration: potential benefits of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. Neurosci Bull 2011; 27: 366–382.

14. Chen CZ, Raghunath M. Focus on collagen: in vitro systems to study fibrogenesis and antifibrosis state of the art. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair 2009; 2: 7.

15. Canty EG, Kadler KE. Procollagen trafficking, processing and fibrillogenesis. J Cell Sci 2005; 118: 1341–1353.

16. Graham MF, Willey A, Adams J et al. Role of ascorbic acid in procollagen expression and secretion by human intestinal smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol 1995; 162: 225–233.

17. Kuroyanagi M, Shimamura E, Kim M et al. Effects of L-ascorbic acid on lysyl oxidase in the formation of collagen cross-links. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002; 66: 2077–2082.

18. Nusgens BV, Humbert P, Rougier A et al. Topically applied vitamin C enhances the mRNA level of collagens I and III, their processing enzymes and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in the human dermis. J Invest Dermatol 2001; 116: 853–859.

19. Heino J. The collagen family members as cell adhesion proteins. Bioessays 2007; 29: 1001–1010.

20. Geissmann F, Manz MG, Jung S et al. Development of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Science 2010; 327: 656–661.

21. Liu K, Nussenzweig MC. Origin and development of dendritic cells. Immunol Rev 2010; 234: 45–54.

22. Cárcamo JM, Pedraza A, Bórquez-Ojeda O et al. Vitamin C is a kinase inhibitor: dehydroascorbic acid inhibits IkappaBalpha kinase beta. Mol Cell Biol 2004; 24: 6645–6652.

23. Tan PH, Sagoo P, Chan C et al. Inhibition of NF-kappa B and oxidative pathways in human dendritic cells by antioxidative vitamins generates regulatory T cells. J Immunol 2005; 174: 7633–7644.

24. Racek J, Holecek V, Sedlacek D et al. Free radicals in immunology and infectious diseases. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2001; 50: 87–91.

25. Griffiths HR, Willetts RS, Grant MM et al. In vivo vitamin C supplementation increases phosphoinositol transfer protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. Br J Nutr 2009; 101: 1432–1439.

26. May JM, Huang J, Qu ZC. Macrophage up­take and recycling of ascorbic acid: response to activation by lipopolysaccharide. Free Radic Biol Med 2005; 39: 1449–1459.

27. Racek J, Eiselt J, Opatrný K Jr. Transitional elements and free radicals. Cas Lek Cesk 2002; 141: 479–482.

28. Cárcamo JM, Bórquez-Ojeda O, Golde DW. Vitamin C inhibits granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor-induced signaling pathways. Blood 2002; 99: 3205–3212.

29. Rayment SJ, Shaw J, Woollard KJ et al. Vitamin C supplementation in normal subjects reduces constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Biochem Bio­phys Res Commun 2003; 308: 339–345.

30. Parker A, Cuddihy SL, Son TG et al. Roles of superoxide and myeloperoxidase in ascorbate oxidation in stimulated neutrophils and H2O2--treated HL60 cells. Free Radic Biol Med 2011; 51: 1399–1405.

31. Kumar V, Sharma A. Neutrophils: Cinderella of innate immune system. Int Immunopharmacol 2010; 10: 1325–1334.

32. Kumar S, Patel S, Jyoti A et al. Nitric oxide-mediated augmentation of neutrophil reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation: critical use of probes. Cytometry A 2010; 77: 1038–1048.

33. Vissers MC, Wilkie RP. Ascorbate deficiency results in impaired neutrophil apoptosis and clearance and is associated with up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha. J Leukoc Biol 2007; 81: 1236–1244.

34. Atasever B, Ertan NZ, Erdem-Kuruca S et al. In vitro effects of vitamin C and selenium on NK activity of patients with beta-thalassemia major. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2006; 23: 187–197.

35. Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH. Immune-enhancing role of vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions. Ann Nutr Metab 2006; 50: 85–94.

36. Perez-Cruz I, Carcamo JM, Golde DW. Vitamin C inhibits FAS-induced apoptosis in monocytes and U937 cells. Blood 2003; 102: 336–343.

37. Pavlović V, Cekić S, Bojanić V et al. Ascorbic acid modulates spontaneous thymocyte apoptosis. Acta Medica Medianae 2005; 44: 21–23.

38. Grant MM, Mistry N, Lunec J et al. Dose-dependent modulation of the T cell proteome by ascorbic acid. Br J Nutr 2007; 97: 19–26.

39. Yan Y, Yang JY, Mou YH et al. Differences in the activities of resveratrol and ascorbic acid in protection of ethanol-induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Food Chem Toxicol 2012; 50: 168–174.

40. Woo A, Kim JH, Jeong YJ et al. Vitamin C acts indirectly to modulate isotype switching in mouse B cells. Anat Cell Biol 2010; 43: 25–35.

Labels
Diabetology Endocrinology Internal medicine

Article was published in

Internal Medicine

Issue 10

2012 Issue 10

Most read in this issue

This topic is also in:


Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account