The importance of physical activity for seniors and its impact on quality of life


Authors: Ľ. Derňarová;  F. Németh;  A. Šuličová;  T. Šantová;  L. Kendrová
Authors‘ workplace: Prešovská univerzita v Prešove ;  Fakulta zdravotníckych odborov ;  Dekanka: doc. PhDr. Štefánia Andraščíková, PhD. ;  Katedra ošetrovateľstva ;  Vedúca katedry: PhDr. Terézia Fertaľová, PhD. ;  Vedúci projektu: doc. MUDr. František Németh, PhD.
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2021; 101(4): 207-212
Category: In diferent

Overview

Introduction. In this paper, we investigate the impact of physical activity in seniors on quality of life by creating two comparative groups of seniors: a group in which seniors undertook a physical activity program and a group in which their lifestyle did not change.

Methods. The cohort of seniors with physical activity consisted of 47 seniors and the cohort without physical activity consisted of 40 seniors. The Barthel Functional Test (ADL), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Frailty Scale (Frail Scale) were administered to both groups of seniors Before and after the physical activity program, the quality of life of seniors in both groups was assessed using standardized WHOQOL-OLD and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. For the assessment of physical activities we chose a tri-axial accelerometer – ActiGraph GT3X+, with which we obtained data such as: total time spent in inactivity, light – moderate – moderate activity in minutes, number of steps, number of kcal, etc.

Results. According to the ActiGraphom GT3X+ evaluation, seniors showed time spent in inactivity: almost 15 hours in the first week, confirming that seniors were also "lounging" during the day or sitting without significant movement. After evaluating the period with physical activity, we found increased energy expenditure in the form of calories consumed, decreased time in inactivity, increased time in light physical activity (PA), moderate PA, a small increase in time in moderate PA, and a decrease in time spent in sedentary breaks. From the analysis of the data obtained using WHOQOL-BREF, we found statistical significance in the mean response values (in terms of improvement) was found in the domains "Mental Health/Experience" and "Health Satisfaction". Evaluation of quality of life through the WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire demonstrated a slight improvement (higher mean scores) was recorded in the domains "Functioning of the Senses", "Independence", "Fulfillment" and "Close Relationships". Statistical significance was not reached in either domain. In the control group without physical activity, statistical significance was reached only in the "Quality of Life" domain.

Conclusion. Our expectations of a significant improvement in the quality of life of the elderly after the exercise program were not fulfilled due to the short time interval of the exercise program, the preferred mild to moderate intensity of PA, pandemic reasons, etc. Although we did not find improvement or at least a tendency towards improvement in all domains, the results obtained after the physical activity program, especially in the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, cannot be considered insignificant.

Keywords:

Physical activity – Quality of life – seniors


Sources

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General practitioner for children and adolescents General practitioner for adults
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