Nicotinism and the female skeleton


Authors: I. Žofková 1;  E. Králíková 2;  M. Hill 1;  M. Dušková 1
Authors‘ workplace: Endokrinologický ústav, Praha Ředitel: doc. MUDr. Vojtěch Hainer, CSc. 1;  Centrum léčby závislosti na tabáku 3. interní klinika VFN a 1. LF UK, Praha Vedoucí: MUDr. Eva Králíková, CSc. 2
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2009; 89(11): 639-642
Category: In diferent

Overview

It is believed that smoking has a serious negative effect on the skeleton. Nicotine activates osteoclastic resorption, inhibits bone formation and damages the bone matrix. The effects of toxic elements, such as cadmium and lead, which are present in cigarette smoke, are equally serious. The direct effects of smoking on the skeleton are modulated by a number of factors, such as the neonatal characteristics of the smoker, including nicotinism in mother, hormonal status (low level of PTH, hypoestrinism), function of the muscle-bone system (sarcopenia), life-style (nutrition and physical activity) and serious systemic diseases. While a number of correlation studies in humans have shown negative relationships between smoking and density and/or quality of the skeleton, there are other studies that have not been conclusive. The main topic of this article is to review the pathogenetic mechanisms of nicotine-induced bone damage. The article also mentions the preliminary results of the author’s on-going study (currently with 40 women participating), which focuses on the association between intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked) and body composition using total body densitometry (DXA).

Key words:
nicotinism, bone density and quality, hormonal homeostasis, D-hormone-PTH axis, pathogenesis, prevention.


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