1. Engels EA, Biggar RJ, Hall HI, et al. Cancer risk in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 187.
2. Marberger M. Prostate Cancer 2008: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management. Eur Urol Suppl 2009; 8: 89–96.
3. Patel P, Hanson DL, Sullivan PS, et al. Incidence of types of cancer among HIV infected persons compared with the general population in the United States, 1992-2003. Ann Int Med 2008; 10: 728–736.
4. Biggar RJ, Kirby KA, Atkinson J, McNeel TS, Engels E. Cancer risk in elderly persons with HIV/AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 36: 861–868.
5. Hessol NA, Pipkin S, Schwarcz S, et al. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non-AIDS-defining cancers among adults with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 165: 1143–1153.
6. Crum NF, Spencer CR, Amling CL. Prostate carcinoma among men with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Cancer 2004; 101: 294–299.
7. Burgi A, Brodine S, Wegner S, et al. Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals. Cancer 2005; 104: 1505–1511.
8. Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007; 370: 59–67.
9. Mocroft A, Brettle R, Kirk O, et al. Changes in the cause of death among HIV positive subjects across Europe: results from the Euro-SIDA Study. AIDS 2002; 16: 1663–1671.
10. Pantanowitz L, Bohac G, Cooley TP, Aboulafia D, Dezube BJ. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated prostate cancer: clinicopathological findings and outcome in a multi-institutional study. BJU Int 2008; 101: 1519–1523.
11. Staiman V, Lowe FC. Prostatic disease in HIV-infected patients. Infect Urol 1996; 9: 42–47.
12. Schwartz JD, Prince D. Prostate cancer in HIV infection. AIDS 1996; 10: 797– 798.
13. Furco A, Bani-Sadr F, Guymar S, Molina JM. Metastatic cancer of the prostate in a young 40 year-old HIV-infected male patient. Presse Med 2003; 32: 930–931.
14. Manfredi R, Fulgaro C, Sabbatani S, Dentale N, Legnani G. Disseminated, lethal prostate cancer during human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with non-specific features. Open questions for urologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists. Cancer Detect Prev 2006; 30: 20–23.
15. Quatan N, Nair S, Harrowes F, Hay P. Should HIV patients be considered a high risk group for the development of prostate cancer? Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2005; 87: 437–438.
16. Silberstein J, Downs T, Lakin C, Kane1 CJ. HIV and prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 2008; 12: 6–12.
17. De Marzo AM, Platz EA, Siobhan S, et al. Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. Nature 2007; 7: 256–269.
18. Dennis LK, Lynch CF, Torner, JC. Epidemiologic association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. Urology 2002; 60: 70–83.
19. Levinson A, Nagler EA, Lowe FC. Approach to management of clinically localized prostate cancer in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Urology 2005; 65: 91–94.
20. Vianna LE, Lo Y, Klein RS. Serum prostate-specific antigen levels in older men with or at risk of HIV infection. HIVMed 2006; 7: 471–476.
21. Masood J, Voulgaris S, Awogu O, et al. Condom perforation during transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) prostate biopsies: a potential infection risk. Int Urol Nephrol 2007; 39: 1121–1124.
22. Huang WC, Kwon EO, Scardino PT, Eastham JA. Radical prostatectomy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. BJU Int 2006; 98: 303–307.
23. Ng T, Stein NF, Kaminetsky J, et al. Preliminary results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Urology 2008; 72: 1135–1138.
24. O’Connor JK, Nedzi LA, Zakris EL. Prostate adenocarcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus: report of three cases and review of the literature. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2006; 5: 85–88.
25. Ikezoe T, Hisatake Y, Takeuchi T, et al. HIV-1 protease inhibitor, ritonavir: a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, enhanced the anticancer effects of docetaxel in androgen- independent prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 7426–7431.
26. Yang Y, Ikezoe T, Takeuchi T, et al. HIV-1 protease inhibitor induces growth arrest and apoptosis of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo in conjunction with blockade of androgen receptor STAT3 and AKT signaling. Cancer Sci 2005; 96: 425–433.
27. Osobní sdělení, Marie Staňková, AIDS centrum FN Na Bulovce 5. 5. 2009.
28. Frisch M, Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Goedert JJ, AIDS-Cancer Match Registry Study Group. Association of cancer with AIDS related immunosuppression in adults. JAMA 2001; 285: 1736-1745.
29. Grulich AE, Li Y, McDonald A, Correll PK, Law MG, Kaldor JM. Rates of non- AIDS-defining cancers in people with HIV infection before and after AIDS diagnosis. AIDS 2002; 16: 1155–1161.
30. Dal Maso L, Franceschi S, Polesel J, et al. Risk of cancer in persons with AIDS in Italy, 1985–1998. Br J Cancer 2003; 89: 94–100.
31. Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, et al. Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 425–432.
32. Newnham A, Harris J, Evans HS, Evans BG, Møller H. The risk of cancer in HIVinfected people in southeast England: a cohort study. Br J Cancer 2005; 92: 194–200.
33. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, et al. Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980–2002. AIDS 2006; 20: 1645–1654.