Differential expression of microRNA in systemic autoimmune diseases


Authors: M. Škoda 1;  P. Novota 1;  L. Pleštilová 2;  M. Remáková 1;  M. Klein 2;  J. Vencovský 2
Authors‘ workplace: Laboratoř molekulární biologie a imunogenetiky, 2Vědeckovýzkumné centrum, Revmatologický ústav Praha 1
Published in: Čes. Revmatol., 19, 2011, No. 4, p. 170-189.
Category: Rewiev

Overview

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding, evolutionary conserved RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. By the epigenetic mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) they modulate stability and translational efficiency of target messenger RNAs. MiRNAs are found in various species, make up 1–2% of eukaryotic genomes and are predicted to affect the expression of about one-half of protein-coding genes. They participate in regulation of key biological processes (cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis). Recent findings highlight the crucial importance of miRNAs in development, homeostasis and function of innate and adaptive immunity. Aberrant expression patterns have been documented in a broad range of diseases including autoimmune disorders. This review summarizes differential microRNA expression in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematodes, scleroderma, Sjögren’s syndrome and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and characterizes miRNAs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets.

Key words:
microRNA, systemic rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, Sjögren´s syndrom, scleroderma, IIM, epigenetics


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