DNA quality of spermatozoa is negatively affected by male age and represents a risk factor for conception


Authors: Z. Krátká
Authors‘ workplace: Imunologická laboratoř GENNET s. r. o., Praha
Published in: Čes. Gynek.2017, 82, č. 6 s. 491-495

Overview

Objective:
Review the effect of ageing on decreasing quality of sperm and increasing risks of reproductive outcome.

Design:
Review.

Setting:
Laboratory of Immunology, GENNET s.r.o, Prague.

Methods:
Study group – men from sub-fertile couples.

Results:
Male age is associated with a decrease of semen volume and deterioration of total sperm count, motility and morphology. Number of de novo gene mutations, defects in DNA epigenetic modifications and number of apoptotic sperm with fragmented DNA increase in ageing men. Male age and life-style have an impact on quality of sperm. The risk factors are smoking, overweight, unhealthy food, lack of physical activity, increased body temperature and illnesses e.g. varicocele, urinary tract infections, cancer diseases and hormonal imbalances.

Conclusion:
Men fertility is not age-unlimited. The probability of conception significantly decreases in older men and the time to conception is significantly prolonged. Urological and andrological examination should be compulsory for older men from subfertile couples. The standard examinations – semen analyses, endocrine examination, ultrasound imaging etc. plus modern methods – such as the examination of sperm DNA fragmentation and the percentage of apoptotic sperm - are recommended. Although the treatment options of male subfertility are limited, the targeted treatment and improvement of patient´s life style can positively influence the sperm quality.

Keywords:
spermatozoa, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, epigenetic process, fertility, ageing


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Labels
Paediatric gynaecology Gynaecology and obstetrics Reproduction medicine

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