Functional morphology of recently discovered telocytes inside the female reproductive system

Authors: Božíková S.1 ,UrbanL.2,3;  M. Kajanová 2,3;  I. Béder 4;  K. Pohlodek 1;  I. Varga 3
Authors‘ workplace: II. gynekologicko-pôrodnícka klinika, Lekárska fakulta Univerzity Komenského a Univerzitná nemocnica Bratislava, pracovisko Ružinov, prednosta prof. MUDr. K. Holomáň, CSc. 1;  Gynekologicko-pôrodnícke oddelenie, ForLife Všeobecná nemocnica, Komárno, primár MUDr. F. Tóth, PhD. 2;  Ústav histológie a embryológie, Lekárska fakulta Univerzity Komenského, Bratislava, prednostaprof. MUDr. Š. Polák, CSc. 3;  Fyziologický ústav, Lekárska fakulta Slovenskej zdravotníckej univerzity, Bratislava, prednostadoc. MUDr. I. Béder, CSc. 4
Published in: Ceska Gynekol 2016; 81(1): 31-37

#obaja autori sa podieľali na príprave rukopisu rovnakým podielom

Úvodná myšlienka
Vo vede neexistujú malé problémy. Problémy, ktoré sa nám javia ako malé, sú zväčša veľkými problémami, ktoré sme dostatočne nepochopili.

Santiago Ramón y Cajal


Discovery of telocytes has become an important and key challenge in past few years. These cells are interstitial cells extending very long cytoplasmic processes named telopodes, by which they create functional networks in the interstitium of different organs. Telocytes are considered to be connective tissue elements that create contacts among each other, but they also function as intercellular structures, functionally connected with cells of the immune system, neurons and smooth muscle cells. Telocytes can be found also in the different parts of female reproductive system with functions and purpose, which is summarized in our overview. Telocytes regulate for example peristaltic movements in fallopian tubes. The decrease of their number (due to inflammatory disease or endometriosis) causes impairment in transport through fallopian tubes which may result in sterility or tubal gravidity. In uterus they regulate contraction of myometrial smooth muscle (blood expulsion in menstrual phase, childbirth) as well as they contribute in immunological care during embryo implantation. Telocytes probably control also the involution of uterus after delivery. Their function in vagina has not been yet clearly defined; they probably take part in slow muscle contraction movement during sexual intercourse. In mammary glands some scientists suppose their function in control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, that is why, they may play a role in carcinogenesis. In placenta they probably monitor and regulate flow of blood in vessels of chorionic villi and they may be responsible also for etiopathogenesis of pre-eclampsy. All these mentioned functions of telocytes are only in the level of hypothesis and have been published recently. New research and studies will try to answer the questions whether telocytes play a key role in these processes. Our review we completed with some original microphotographs of telocytes in different organs of female reproductive system.

telocytes, interstitial Cajal-like cells, myometrium, fallopian tubes, vagina, mammary gland, placenta


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Paediatric gynaecology Gynaecology and obstetrics Reproduction medicine

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