Functional morphology of recently discovered telocytes inside the female reproductive system


Authors: Božíková S.1 ,UrbanL.2,3;  M. Kajanová 2,3;  I. Béder 4;  K. Pohlodek 1;  I. Varga 3
Authors‘ workplace: II. gynekologicko-pôrodnícka klinika, Lekárska fakulta Univerzity Komenského a Univerzitná nemocnica Bratislava, pracovisko Ružinov, prednosta prof. MUDr. K. Holomáň, CSc. 1;  Gynekologicko-pôrodnícke oddelenie, ForLife Všeobecná nemocnica, Komárno, primár MUDr. F. Tóth, PhD. 2;  Ústav histológie a embryológie, Lekárska fakulta Univerzity Komenského, Bratislava, prednostaprof. MUDr. Š. Polák, CSc. 3;  Fyziologický ústav, Lekárska fakulta Slovenskej zdravotníckej univerzity, Bratislava, prednostadoc. MUDr. I. Béder, CSc. 4
Published in: Ceska Gynekol 2016; 81(1): 31-37

#obaja autori sa podieľali na príprave rukopisu rovnakým podielom

Úvodná myšlienka
Vo vede neexistujú malé problémy. Problémy, ktoré sa nám javia ako malé, sú zväčša veľkými problémami, ktoré sme dostatočne nepochopili.

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Overview

Discovery of telocytes has become an important and key challenge in past few years. These cells are interstitial cells extending very long cytoplasmic processes named telopodes, by which they create functional networks in the interstitium of different organs. Telocytes are considered to be connective tissue elements that create contacts among each other, but they also function as intercellular structures, functionally connected with cells of the immune system, neurons and smooth muscle cells. Telocytes can be found also in the different parts of female reproductive system with functions and purpose, which is summarized in our overview. Telocytes regulate for example peristaltic movements in fallopian tubes. The decrease of their number (due to inflammatory disease or endometriosis) causes impairment in transport through fallopian tubes which may result in sterility or tubal gravidity. In uterus they regulate contraction of myometrial smooth muscle (blood expulsion in menstrual phase, childbirth) as well as they contribute in immunological care during embryo implantation. Telocytes probably control also the involution of uterus after delivery. Their function in vagina has not been yet clearly defined; they probably take part in slow muscle contraction movement during sexual intercourse. In mammary glands some scientists suppose their function in control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, that is why, they may play a role in carcinogenesis. In placenta they probably monitor and regulate flow of blood in vessels of chorionic villi and they may be responsible also for etiopathogenesis of pre-eclampsy. All these mentioned functions of telocytes are only in the level of hypothesis and have been published recently. New research and studies will try to answer the questions whether telocytes play a key role in these processes. Our review we completed with some original microphotographs of telocytes in different organs of female reproductive system.

KEYWORDS:
telocytes, interstitial Cajal-like cells, myometrium, fallopian tubes, vagina, mammary gland, placenta


Sources

1. Adamkov, M., Výbohová, D., Horáček, J., et al. Survivin expression in breast lobular carcinoma: correlations with normal breast tissue and clinicomorphological parameters. Acta Histochem, 2013, 115, 5, p. 412–417.

2. Bei, Y., Wang, F., Yang, C., Xiao, J. Telocytes in regenerative medicine. J Cell Mol Med, 2015, 19, 7, p. 1441–1454.

3. Bock, O. Cajal, Golgi, Nansen, Schäfer and the Neuron Doctrine. Endeavour, 2013, 37, 4, p. 228–234.

4. Bosco, C., Díaz, E., Gutiérrez, R., et al. Placental hypoxia developed during preeclampsia induces telocytes apoptosis in chorionic villi affecting the maternal-fetus metabolic exchange. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2015 (v tlači)

5. Bosco, C., Díaz, E., Gutiérrez, R., et al. A putative role for telocytes in placental barrier impairment during preeclampsia. Med Hypotheses, 2015, 84, 1, p. 72–77.

6. Cantarero, I., Luesma, MJ., Alvarez-Dotu, JM., et al. Transmission electron microscopy as key technique for the characterization of telocytes. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2016 (v tlači).

7. Ceafalan, L., Gherghiceanu, M., Popescu, LM., Simio­nescu, O. Telocytes in human skin – are they involved in skin regeneration? J Cell Mol Med, 2012, 16, 7, p. 1405–1420.

8. Ciontea, SM., Radu, E., Regalia, T., et al. C-kit immunopositive interstitial cells (Cajal-type) in human myometrium. J Cell Mol Med, 2005, 9, 2, p. 407–420.

9. Cretoiu, D., Ciontea, SM., Popescu, LM., et al. Interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC) as steroid hormone sensors in human myo­metrium: immunocytochemical approach. J Cell Mol Med, 2006, 10, 3, p. 789–795.

10. Creţoiu, SM., Creţoiu, D., Popescu, LM. Human myometrium – the ultrastructural 3D network of telocytes. J Cell Mol Med, 2012, 1, 11, p. 2844–2849.

11. Creţoiu, SM., Creţoiu, D., Marin, A., et al. Telocytes: ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and electrophysiological characteristics in human myometrium. Reproduction, 2013, 145, 4, p. 357–570.

12. Dixon, RE., Hwang, SJ., Hennig, GW., et al. Chlamydia infection causes loss of pacemaker cells and inhibits oocyte transport in the mouse oviduct. Biol Reprod, 2009, 8, 4, p. 665–673.

13. Dixon, RE., Ramsey, KH., Schripsema, JH., et al. Time-dependent disruption of oviduct pacemaker cells by Chlamydia infection in mice. Biol Reprod, 2010, 8, 2, p. 244–253.

14. Djahanbakhch, O., Ezzati, M., Saridogan, E. Physiology and pathophysiology of tubal transport: ciliary beat and muscular contractility, relevance to tubal infertility, recent research, and future directions. In: Ledger, WL., Tan, SL., Bahathiq, AOS. (Eds). The Fallopian tube in infertility and IVF practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 19–29.

15. Duquette, RA., Shmygol, A., Vaillant, C., et al. Vimentin-positive, c-kit-negative interstitial cells in human and rat uterus: a role in pacemaking? Biol Reprod, 2005, 72, 2, p. 276–283.

16. Edelstein, L., Smythies, J. The role of telocytes in morphogenetic bioelectrical signaling: once more unto the breach. Front Mol Neurosci, 2014, 7, p. 41.

17. Faussone Pellegrini, MS., Cortesini, C., Romagnoli, P. Ultrastructure of the tunica muscularis of the cardial portion of the human esophagus and stomach, with special reference to the so-called Cajal‘s interstitial cells. Arch Ital Anat Embriol, 1977, 82(2), p. 157–177.

18. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Terminologia histologica: international terms for human cytology and histology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, p. 1–213.

19. Furjelova, M., Kovalska, M., Jurkova, K., et al. Correlation of carbonic anhydrase IX expression with clinico-morphological parameters, hormonal receptor status and HER-2 expression in breast cancer. Neoplasma, 2015, 6, 1, p. 88–97.

20. Gherghiceanu, M., Popescu, LM. Interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC) in human resting mammary gland stroma. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) identification. J Cell Mol Med, 2005, 9, 4, p. 893–910.

21. Hemminger, J., Iwenofu, OH. Discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumours 1 (DOG1) expression in non-gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) neoplasms. Histopathology, 2012, 61, 2, p. 170–177.

22. Hutchings, G., Williams, O., Cretoiu, D., Ciontea, SM. Myometrial interstitial cells and the coordination of myometrial contractility. J Cell Mol Med, 2009, 13, 10, p. 4268–4282.

23. Kajanová, M., Danihel, Ľ., Polák, Š., et al. Štruktúrny základ transportnej funkcie vajíčkovodu. Čes Gynekol, 2012, 77, 6, p. 566–571.

24. Koman, A., Cazaubon, S., Couraud, PO., et al. Molecular characterization and in vitro biological activity of placentin, a new member of the insulin gene family. J Biol Chem, 1996, 271, 34, p. 20238–20241.

25. Liu, J., Cao, Y., Song, Y., et al. Telocytes in liver. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2015 (v tlači).

26. Matyja, A., Gil, K., Pasternak, A., et al. Telocytes: new insight into the pathogenesis of gallstone disease. J Cell Mol Med, 2013, 17, 6, p. 734–742.

27. Mou, Y., Wang, Y., Li, J., et al. Immunohistochemical characterization and functional identification of mammary gland telocytes in the self-assembly of reconstituted breast cancer tissue in vitro. J Cell Mol Med, 2013, 1, 1, p. 65–75.

28. Nicolescu, MI., Popescu, LM. Telocytes in the interstitium of human exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural evidence. Pancreas, 2012, 41, 6, p. 949–956.

29. Popescu, LM., Ciontea, SM., Cretoiu, D., et al. Novel type of interstitial cell (Cajal-like) in human fallopian tube. J Cell Mol Med, 2005, 9, 2, p. 479–523.

30. Popescu, LM., Andrei, F., Hinescu, ME. Snapshots of mammary gland interstitial cells: methylene-blue vital staining andc-kit immunopositivity. J Cell Mol Med, 2005, 9, 2, p. 476–477.

31. Popescu, LM., Gherghiceanu, M., Cretoiu, D., Radu, E. The connective connection: interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and ICC-like cells establish synapses with immunoreactive cells. Electron microscope study in situ. J Cell Mol Med, 2005, 3, p. 714–730.

32. Popescu, LM., Ciontea, SM., Cretoiu, D. Interstitial Cajal-like cells in human uterus and Fallopian tube. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2007, 1101, p. 139–165.

33. Popescu, LM., Faussone-Pellegrini, MS. Telocytes – a case of serendipity: the winding way from Interstitial Cells of Cajal, via Interstitial Cajal-Like Cells to telocytes. J Cell Mol Med, 2010, 14, 4, p. 729–740.

34. Radu, E., Regalia, T., Ceafalan, L., et al. Cajal-type cells from human mammary gland stroma: phenotype characteristics in cell culture. J Cell Mol Med, 2005, 9, 3, p. 748–752.

35. Roatesi, I., Radu, BM., Cretoiu, D., Cretoiu, SM. Uterine telocytes: a review of current knowledge. Biol Reprod, 2015, 93, 1, p. 10.

36. Rusu, MC., Folescu, R., Mănoiu, VS., Didilescu, AC. Suburothelial interstitial cells. Cells Tissues Organs, 2014, 19, 1, p. 59–72.

37. Salama, N. Immunohistochemical characterization of telocytes in rat uterus in different reproductive states. Egypt J Histol, 2013, 36, p. 185–194.

38. Shafik, A., El Sibai, O., Shafik, AA., et al. The electrovaginogram: study of the vaginal electric activity and its role in the sexual act and disorders. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2004, 269, 4, p. 282–286.

39. Shafik, A., Shafik, AA., El Sibai, O., Shafik, IA. Specialized pacemaking cells in the human Fallopian tube. Mol Hum Reprod, 2005, 11, 7, p. 503–505.

40. Shafik, A., El-Sibai, O., Shafik, I., Shafik, AA. Immunohistochemical identification of the pacemaker cajal cells in the normal human vagina. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2005, 272, 1, p. 13–16.

41. Suciu, L., Popescu, LM., Gherghiceanu, M. Human placenta: de visu demonstration of interstitial Cajal-like cells. J Cell Mol Med, 2007, 11, 3, p. 590–597.

42. Suciu, L., Popescu, LM., Gherghiceanu, M., et al. Telocytes in human term placenta: morphology and phenotype. Cells Tissues Organs, 2010, 192, 5, p. 325–339.

43. Tao, L., Wang, H., Wang, X., et al. Cardiac telocytes. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2016 (v tlači).

44. Thuneberg, L. Interstitial cells of Cajal: intestinal pacemaker cells? Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol, 1982, 71, p. 1–130.

45. Urban, L., Miko, M., Kajanová, M., et al. Telocytes (interstitial Cajal-like cells) in human Fallopian tubes – an immunohistochemical study. Bratisl Lek Listy, 2016, 5, (v tlači).

46. Yang, XJ., Xu, JY., Shen, ZJ., Zhao, J. Immunohistochemical alterations of Cajal-like type of tubal interstitial cells in women with endometriosis and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2013, 288, 6, p. 1295–1300

47. Yang, J., Chi, C., Liu, Z., et al. Ultrastructure damage of oviduct telocytes in rat model of acute salpingitis. J Cell Mol Med, 2015, 19, 7, p. 1720–1728.

48. Yang, XJ., Yang, J., Liu, Z., et al. Telocytes damage in endometriosis-affected rat oviduct and potential impact on fertility. J Cell Mol Med, 2015, 1, 2, p. 452–462.

49. Zaviačič, M., Ablin, RJ. The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications of this prostate marker in women and reasons for using the term „prostate“ in the human female. Histol Histopathol, 2000, 15, 1, p. 131–142.

Labels
Paediatric gynaecology Gynaecology and obstetrics Reproduction medicine

Article was published in

Czech Gynaecology

Issue 1

2016 Issue 1

Most read in this issue
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account