Anticancer Effect of Fish Oil – a Fable or the Truth?


Authors: J. Neuwirthová;  B. Gál;  P. Smilek;  P. Urbánková;  R. Kostřica
Authors‘ workplace: Klinika otorinolaryngologie a chirurgie hlavy a krku LF MU a FN u sv. Anny v Brně
Published in: Klin Onkol 2016; 29(2): 100-106
Category: Review
doi: 10.14735/amko2016100

Overview

Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil have several health benefits for cancer patients. Recent findings indicate that, besides their well-known anti-cachectic effect, they can act synergistically with chemotherapeutic agents and may enhance tumor radio-sensitivity. The mechanisms underlying their anti-tumor effects are complex. The following effects have been reported after administration of omega-3 fatty acids: increased lipid peroxidation during therapy; disturbed tumor receptor signal pathways; lower levels level of pro-inflammatory cytokines that induce tumor cell proliferation; promotion of apoptosis in tumor tissues; immune modulation; and changes in hormonal metabolism. Epidemiological and experimental evidence support the conjecture that fish oil has an anticancer benefit for both animals and humans. However, Western countries have a diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids, which interfere with the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids because they compete for the same rate-limiting enzymes. For this reason, the consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in Western diet needs to be lowered to observe the anti-tumor effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Some epidemiological studies report conflicting results, which may be explained by inconsistencies in the methodologies employed.

Key words:
omega-3 fatty acid – fish oil – chemoprevention – anticancer agent – apoptosis – lipid peroxidation

The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.

The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.

Submitted:
6. 11. 2015

Accepted:
9. 1. 2016


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