Physiology of physical strain


Authors: V. Vančura 1;  J. Radvanský 2
Authors‘ workplace: Kardiologická klinika IKEM, Praha 1;  Klinika tělovýchovného lékařství 2. LF UK a FN Motol, Praha 2
Published in: Kardiol Rev Int Med 2007, 9(Mimořádné): 5-9
Category: Editorial

Overview

Physical strain results in a number of coordinated comprehensive and harmonised physiological processes which allow increased performance of the striped muscles. Muscles under strain have a higher oxygen demand, which also increases the load of the cardiovascular system. It has long been known that physical activity increases the heart minute volume through a rise in the heart rate and pulse volume, yet the precise mechanisms causing the increase of pulse volume are still a matter of controversy. After major physical strain, a number of physiological changes occur. Hyponatremia may be present in the ionogram after intense and protracted sporting activities. Both procoagulation and fibrinolytic mechanisms are activated. Simultaneously, there are changes in immunity which may temporarily increase the tendency towards infections of the upper respiratory tract after extreme physical strain. There is a clear evidence of oxidative stress during acute exercise reaction, but adaptation to the regular physical physical exercise is one of the best ways for the long lasting oxidative stress elimination. In the hours following an intense sporting activity, the volume of blood grows, which is one of the typical manifestations of adaptation of the body to repeated physical exercise. After physical exercise, the level of triglycerides decreases, the HDL cholesterol level grows and the blood pressure decreases. The mode and the degree of adaptation to physical activity depends on the type of physical activity as well as on the genetic predisposition of the given person. In spite of individual variability in results of adaptation, the processes related to the repeated and individually adjusted physical activity are beneficial.

Keywords:
sport – physical strain – haemostatic mechanisms – oxidative stress – immunity changes – adaptation


Sources

1. Tschakovsky ME, Saunders NR, Webb KA, O'Donnell DE. Muscle blood-flow dynamics at exercise onset: do the limbs differ? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38(10): 1811-1818.

2. Hughson RL, Shoemaker JK, Tschakovsky ME, Kowalchuk JM. Dependence of muscle VO2 on blood flow dynamics at onset of forearm exercise. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81(4): 1619-1626.

3. Hamann JJ, Buckwalter JB, Clifford PS. Vasodilatation is obligatory for contraction-induced hyperaemia in canine skeletal muscle. J Physiol 2004; 557(3): 1013-1020.

4. Tschakovsky ME, Sheriff DD. Immediate exercise hyperemia: contributions of the muscle pump vs. rapid vasodilation. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97(2): 739-747.

5. VanTeeffelen JW, Segal SS. Rapid dilation of arterioles with single contraction of hamster skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 2006; 290(1): 119-127.

6. Clifford PS, Hellsten Y. Vasodilatory mechanisms in contracting skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97(1): 393-403.

7. Segal SS, Damon DN, Duling BR. Propagation of vasomotor responses coordinates arteriolar resistances. Am J Physiol 1989; 256(3 Pt 2): 832-837.

8. Thengchaisri N, Rivers RJ. Remote arteriolar dilations caused by methacholine: a role for CGRP sensory nerves? Am J Physiol 2005; 289(2): 608-613.

9. Kellogg DL, jr., Johnson JM, Kosiba WA. Competition between cutaneous active vasoconstriction and active vasodilation during exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 1991; 261(4 Pt 2): 1184-1189.

10. Newcomer SC, Leuenberger UA, Hogeman CS et al. Different vasodilator responses of human arms and legs. J Physiol 2004; 556(3): 1001-1011.

11. Knight DR, Poole DC, Schaffartzik W et al. Relationship between body and leg VO2 during maximal cycle ergometry. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73(3): 1114-1121.

12. Poole DC, Gaesser GA, Hogan MC et al. Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72(2): 805-810.

13. Richter EA, Kiens B, Hargreaves M, Kjaer M. Effect of arm-cranking on leg blood flow and noradrenaline spillover during leg exercise in man. Acta Physiol Scand 1992; 144(1): 9-14.

14. Savard GK, Richter EA, Strange S et al. Norepinephrine spillover from skeletal muscle during exercise in humans: role of muscle mass. Am J Physiol 1989; 257(6 Pt 2): 1812-1818.

15. Harms CA, Babcock MA, McClaran SR et al. Respiratory muscle work compromises leg blood flow during maximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 1997; 82(5): 1573-1583.

16. Jensen-Urstad M, Bouvier F, Nejat M et al. Left ventricular function in endurance runners during exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 1998; 164(2): 167-172.

17. Warburton DE, Haykowsky MJ, Quinney HA et al. Myocardial response to incremental exercise in endurance-trained athletes: influence of heart rate, contractility and the Frank-Starling effect. Exp Physiol 2002; 87(5): 613-622.

18. Vella CA, Robergs RA. A review of the stroke volume response to upright exercise in healthy subjects. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39(4): 190-195.

19. Stickland MK, Welsh RC, Petersen SR et al. Does fitness level modulate the cardiovascular hemodynamic response to exercise? J Appl Physiol 2006; 100(6): 1895-1901.

20. Stoylen A, Wisloff U, Slordahl S. Left ventricular mechanics during exercise: a Doppler and tissue Doppler study. Eur J Echocardiogr 2003; 4(4): 286-291.

21. Nonogi H, Hess OM, Ritter M, Krayenbuehl HP. Diastolic properties of the normal left ventricle during supine exercise. Br Heart J 1988; 60(1): 30-38.

22. Iliceto S, D'Ambrosio G, Marangelli V et al. Echo-Doppler evaluation of the effects of heart rate increments on left atrial pump function in normal human subjects. Eur Heart J 1991; 12(3): 345-351.

23. Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Di Paolo FM et al. Prevalence and clinical significance of left atrial remodeling in competitive athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46(4): 690-696.

24. Lakatta EG. Beyond Bowditch: the convergence of cardiac chronotropy and inotropy. Cell calcium 2004; 35(6): 629-642.

25. Ekblom B, Hermansen L. Cardiac output in athletes. J Appl Physiol 1968; 25(5): 619-625.

26. Mollmann H, Schmidt-Schweda S, Nef H et al. Contractile effects of angiotensin and endothelin in failing and non-failing human hearts. Int J Cardiol 2007; 114(1): 34-40.

27. Nybo L, Secher NH. Cerebral perturbations provoked by prolonged exercise. Prog Neurobiol 2004; 72(4): 223-261.

28. Carnethon MR, Jacobs DR Jr et al. A longitudinal study of physical activity and heart rate recovery: CARDIA, 1987-1993. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37(4): 606-612.

29. Green DJ, Naylor LH, George K. Cardiac and vascular adaptations to exercise. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006; 9(6): 677-684.

30. Rodahl K, Dahl HA, Stromme SB, Astrand PO. Textbook of Work Physiology: Physiological Bases of Exercise. 4. vyd. Champaign: Human Kinetics Publishers 2003.

31. Almond CS, Shin AY, Fortescue EB et al. Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(15): 1550-1556.

32. Goudie AM, Tunstall-Pedoe DS, Kerins M. Altered mental status after a marathon. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(15): 1613-1614.

33. Gordon NF, Duncan JJ. Effect of beta-blockers on exercise physiology: implications for exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23(6): 668-676.

34. Sulzer NU, Schwellnus MP, Noakes TD. Serum electrolytes in Ironman triathletes with exercise-associated muscle cramping. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37(7): 1081-1085.

35. Gillen CM, Lee R, Mack GW et al. Plasma volume expansion in humans after a single intense exercise protocol. J Appl Physiol 1991; 71(5): 1914-1920.

36. Warburton DE, Haykowsky MJ, Quinney HA et al. Blood volume expansion and cardiorespiratory function: effects of training modality. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36(6): 991-1000.

37. Smith JE. Effects of strenuous exercise on haemostasis. Br J Sports Med 2003; 37(5): 433-435.

38. Alessio HM, Hagerman AE, Fulkerson BK et al. Generation of reactive oxygen species after exhaustive aerobic and isometric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(9): 1576-1581.

39. Vincent HK, Morgan JW, Vincent KR. Obesity exacerbates oxidative stress levels after acute exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36(5): 772-779.

40. Scheede-Bergdahl C, Penkowa M et al. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2005; 54(11): 3089-3094.

41. Watson TA, Callister R, Taylor RD et al. Antioxidant restriction and oxidative stress in short-duration exhaustive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37(1): 63-71.

42. Nieman DC. Is infection risk linked to exercise workload? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(7, Suppl): 406-411.

43. Kasapis C, Thompson PD. The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory markers: a systematic review. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45(10): 1563-1569.

44. Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Asp S et al. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans. J Physiol 1999; 515 (1): 287-291.

45. Mooren FC, Lechtermann A, Volker K. Exercise-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes depends on training status. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36(9): 1476-1483.

46. Brown AS, Davis JM, Murphy EA et al. Gender differences in macrophage antiviral function following exercise stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38(5): 859-863.

47. Wolach B, Gavrieli R, Ben-Dror SG et al. Transient decrease of neutrophil chemotaxis following aerobic exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37(6): 949-954.

48. Matthews CE, Ockene IS, Freedson PS et al. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and risk of upper-respiratory tract infection. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34(8): 1242-1248.

49. Thompson PD, Crouse SF, Goodpaster B et al. The acute versus the chronic response to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33(6,Suppl): 438-445; discussion 452-433.

50. Bouchard C, Daw EW, Rice T et al. Familial resemblance for VO2max in the sedentary state: the HERITAGE family study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30(2): 252-258.

51. Bouchard C, Rankinen T. Individual differences in response to regular physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33(6,Suppl): 446-451; discussion 452-443.

52. Rankinen T, Bray MS, Hagberg JM et al. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2005 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38(11): 1863-1888.

53. Carlsson S, Andersson T, Lichtenstein P et al. Genetic effects on physical activity: results from the Swedish Twin Registry. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38(8): 1396-1401.

54. Barbier J, Lebiller E, Ville N et al. Relationships between sports-specific characteristics of athlete's heart and maximal oxygen uptake. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2006; 13(1): 115-121.

55. Sharma S. Athlete's heart--effect of age, sex, ethnicity and sporting discipline. Exp Physiol 2003; 88(5): 665-669.

56. Wakatsuki T, Schlessinger J, Elson EL. The biochemical response of the heart to hypertension and exercise. Trends Biochem Sci 2004; 29(11): 609-617.

57. Moore RL, Korzick DH. Cellular adaptations of the myocardium to chronic exercise. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1995; 37(6): 371-396.

58. Thompson PD, Buchner D, Pina IL et al. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity). Circulation 2003; 107(24): 3109-3116.

59. Wing RR, Hill JO. Successful weight loss maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr 2001; 21: 323-341.

60. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346(6): 393-403.

61. Brosse AL, Sheets ES, Lett HS, Blumenthal JA. Exercise and the treatment of clinical depression in adults: recent findings and future directions. Sports Med 2002; 32(12): 741-760.

62. Thompson HJ. Pre-clinical investigations of physical activity and cancer: a brief review and analysis. Carcinogenesis 2006; 27(10): 1946-1949.

63. Kalvach Z, Zadák Z, Jirák R, Zavázalová H, Sucharda P. Geriatrie a gerontologie. Praha: Grada 2004.

Labels
Paediatric cardiology Internal medicine Cardiac surgery Cardiology
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account