Preventing hereditary risk of breast and ovarian cancer


Authors: L. Foretová
Authors‘ workplace: Oddělení epidemiologie a genetiky nádorů, Masarykův onkologický ústav Brno
Published in: Prakt Gyn 2011; 15(3-4): 167-173
Category: Review Article

Overview

The incidence of breast and ovarian cancer is increasing. Most cancer diseases are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Hereditary etiology, caused by a germline mutation in a high-risk gene multiplying the probability of cancer, is identified in a small proportion of patients only. Genetic testing may disclose heredity and enable us to use this knowledge for the profit of the patient and her family members. Several genes are responsible for the risk of breast or ovarian cancer. Testing of highly penetrant BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is recommended for clinical use, the role of moderate or low-risk genes in cancer etiology is unclear. Breast or ovarian cancer may be a part of other hereditary syndromes, where the testing is also possible. Expert teams recommend preventive care for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers that comprises of primary prevention with prophylactic surgeries and specialized secondary prevention. Modern diagnostic methods and surgical prevention may improve survival and quality of life.

Key words:
genes BRCA1, BRCA2 – genetic predisposition – breast cancer – ovarian cancer – tumour preventions


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Labels
Paediatric gynaecology Gynaecology and obstetrics Reproduction medicine
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