Future Possibilities of the Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
E. Havrdová; D. Horáková; I. Kovářová; E. Krasulová
Neurologická klinika 1. LF UK a VFN, Praha
Čas. Lék. čes. 2005; 144: 663-665
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Pathogenetic mechanisms involve inflammation and neurodegeneration leading to myelin sheaths destruction and irreversible nerve fibre loss. At present mainly the inflammatory part can be influenced and undoubtedly only the earliest beginning of the treatment can effectively postpone irreversible disability. High-dose corticosteroids remain the „gold standard“ in MS attack treatment. Interferon beta and glatiramer acetate represent disease modifying drugs. Both of these medicaments decrease the number of attacks for about 30 %, however each patient responds differently. In many cases new attacks appear and it is necessary to intensify the treatment – to add immunosuppresives, to use combinations of steroid and cytostatic treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulins represent second line treatment. In the case of rapid disease progression immunoablation and stem cells transplantation is available. From recently tested drugs the most successful was the monoclonal antibody natalizumab. Unfortunately because of serious adverse effects in patients treated by combination of interferon beta + natalizumab, the application has been stopped. Monoclonal antibody against inteleukin 12 and chemokine receptor CCR2, cytostatics fumarate, laquinimod and cladribine are also tested in the clinical studies. DNA vaccination represents revolutionary opportunity of inducing tolerance against myelin autoantigens.
multiple sclerosis, corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, cytostatics, intravenous immunoglobulins, immunoablation, monoclonal antibodies, DNA vaccination.
Allergology and clinical immunology
Dermatology & STDs