Functional anatomy of parenting


Authors: F. Koukolík
Authors‘ workplace: Oddělení patologie a molekulární medicíny ;  Národní referenční laboratoř prionových chorob ;  Thomayerova nemocnice, Praha ;  Primář: doc. MUDr. Radoslav Matěj, PhD.
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2013; 93(5): 199-206
Category: Editorial

Overview

Infant survival and the development of secure relationships with the caregiver and then other people are fundamental to survival in the human species. This process relies on the evolving early parent-infant social and affective relationship. An infant’s basic orientation and recognition processes begin in the first postpartum hours and culminate in an infant’s attainment of higher socio-emotional and cognitive capacities: theory of mind and empathy. Attachment theory (Bowlby, Ainsworth) is rooted in the etological notion that a newborn child is “programmed” by biological evolution to seek proximity with caregivers. The infant and the caregiver develop an internal working model that reflects their mutual attachment. Ainsworth developed the experimental Strange Situation Protocol that can be used to assess infant patterns of attachment to their caregiver. Three such patterns exist: secure, insecure and disorganized attachment. Attachment activates brain responses in systems related to emotions and empathy. There is a functional neuroanatomy of maternal love, which is different from functional neuroanatomy of romantic love. Attachment pattern develops into adulthood: there are four patterns of adult attachment. Adult physical illness can be predicted from infant attachments. So-called “extended form of attachment” is important for human cooperation. The ancient mechanisms supporting basic forms of attachment enable the unique human ability to attach to cultural objects.

Keywords:
infant – attachment – parenting – love – brain


Sources

1. Atzil S, Hendler T, Feldman R. Specifying the neurobiological basis of human attachment: brain, hormones, and behavior in synchronous and intrusive mothers. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011; 36: 2603–2615.

2. Beebe B, Lachmann FM, Markese S, et al. On the origins of disorganized attachment and internal working models: paper II. An empirical microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant interaction. Psychoanalytical dialogues: The international Journal of Relational Perspectives. 2012; 22: 352–374.

3. Belsky J, Houts RM, Pasco-Fearon RM. Infant attachment security and the timing of puberty: testing an evolutionary hypothesis. Psychological Science 2010; 21: 1195–1201.

4. Bergman K, Sarkar P, Glover V. et al. Maternal prenatal cortisol and infant cognitive development: moderation by infant-mother attachment. Biol Pychiatry 2010; 67: 1026–1032.

5. Bowlby J. Separation: anger and anxiety. Attachment and loss, vol. 2. London: Hoggarth 1973.

6. Bowlby J. Attachment and loss, vol I. (2nd ed.) New York: Basic Books 1982, 1999.

7. Bretherton I. The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology 1992; 28: 759–775.

8. Buckner R, Andrew-Hanna J, Schacter D. The brain´s default network: anatomy, function and relevance to disease. Ann NY Acad Sci 2008; 1124: 1–38.

9. Curley JP. The mu-opioid receptor and the evolution of the mother - infant attachment: theoretical comment on Higham et al. (2011). Behavioral Neuroscience 2011; 125: 273–278.

10. Decety J. The neurodevelopment of empathy in humans. Dev Neurosci 2010; doi:10. 1159/00317771

11. Gao W, Zhu H, Giovanello KS, et al. Evidence on emergence of the brain´s default network from 2-week- old to 2 – year - old healthy pediatric subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2009; 106: 6790–6795.

12. Harlow HF. The nature of love. American Psychologist 1958; 13: 673–685.

13. Hoehl S, Wiese L, Striano T. Young infant ´s neural processing pf objects is affected by eye direction and emotional expression. PLoS One 2008; 3: e2389.

14. Horts JS, Oakes LM, Madole KL. What does it look like and what can I do? Category structure influences how infants categorize. Child Development 2005; 76: 614–631.

15. Kim P, Leckman JF, Mayes LC. Perceived quality of maternal care in childhood and structure and function of mother´s brain. Developmental Science 2010; 13: 662–673.

16. Koukolík F. Před úsvitem, po ránu. Eseje o dětech a rodičích. Praha: Karolinum 2008.

17. Koukolík F, Drtilová J. Vzpoura deprivantů. Nové vydání. Praha: Galén 2008.

18. Koukolík F. Evoluce a evoluční teorie pro lékaře X. Sebeuvědomování. Prakt. Lék. 2010; 90: 571–576.

19. Koukolík F. Základy kognitivní, afektivní a sociální neurovědy II. Empatie. Prakt. Lék. 2011; 91: 63–67.

20. Koukolík F. Já. O mozku, vědomí a sebeuvědomování. 2. přepracované vydání. Praha: Karolinum 2013.

21. Koukolík F. Základy kognitivní, afektivní a sociální neurovědy XIX. Mozek a stres. Prakt. Lék. 2012; 92: 311–316.

22. Koukolík F. Lidský mozek. Funkční systémy. Norma a poruchy. Třetí přepracované a rozšířené vydání. Praha: Galén 2012; 66–69.

23. Kuhl PK. Early language acquisition. Cracking the speech code. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2004; 5: 831–843.

24. Leuner B, Glasper ER, Gould E. Parenting and plasticity. Trends Neurosci 2010; 33: 465–473.

25. Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Bullmore ET, et al. Shared neural circuits for mentalizing about the self and others. J Cognitive Neuroscience 2010; 22: 1623–1635.

26. Luijk MPCM, Roisman GI, Haltigan JD, et al. Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytonergic candidate genes associated with infant attachment security and disorganization? In search of main and interaction effects. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2011; 52: 1295–1307.

27. Machin AJ, Dunbar RIM. The brain opioid theory of social attachment: a review of the evidence. Behaviour 2011; 148: 985–1025.

28. Mareschal D, Johnson MH. The „what“ and „where“ of object representations in infancy. Cognition 2003; 88: 259–276.

29. Macdonald HZ, Beeghly M, Grant-Knight M. Longitudinal association between infant stress disorganized attachment and childhood posttraumatic stress symptoms. Dev Psychopathol. 2008; 20: 493–508.

30. Moll J, de Oliveira-Souza R. „Extended attachment“ and the human brain: internalized cultural values and evolutionary implications. In: The moral brain. Essays on the evolutionary and neuroscientific aspects of morality. Verplaetse J. et al. (eds.) Berlin – New York: Springer 2009.

31. Montoya JL, Landi N, Kober H, et al. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e36270. doi:10. 1371/journal. pone. 0036270

32. Papousek M. Communication in early infancy: an area of intersubjective learning. Infant behavior and development 2007; 30: 258–266.

33. Parsons CE, Young KS, Murray L, et al. The functional neuroanatomy of the evolving parent-infant relationship. Progress in Neurobiology 2010; 91: 220–241.

34. Puig J, Englund MM, Simpson JA, et al. Predicting adult physical illness form infant attachment: a prospective longitudinal study. doi:10. 1037/a0028889

35. Quin PC, Eimas PD, Tarr MJ. Perceptual categorization of cat and dog silhouettes by 3 - to 4 - month old infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 2001; 79: 78–94.

36. Rutter M. Clinical implications of attachment concepts: retrospect and prospect. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1995; 36: 549–571.

37. Salter Ainsworth MD. Patterns of infant-mother attachments: antecedents and effects on development. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Sciences 1985; 61: 771–791.

38. Salter Ainsworth MD. Attachment across the life span. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Sciences 1985; 61: 792–812.

39. Salter Ainsworth MD, Bowlby J. An ethological approach to personality development. American Psychologist 1991; 46: 333–341.

40. Strathearn L, Li, J, Fonagy P, et al. What is in smile? Maternal brain responses to infant facial cues. Pediatrics 2008; 122: 40–51.

41. Striano T, Kopp F, Grossman T. Eye contact influences neural processing of emotional expressions in 4- month- old infants. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 2006; 1: 87–94.

42. Swain JE, Lorberbaum JP. Imaging the human parental brain. In: Neurobiology of the parental mind, R. S. Bridges (ed). New York: Academic Press 2008; 83–100.

43. Swain JE. The human parental brain: in vivo neuroimaging. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2011; 35: 1242–1254.

44. Tzourio-Mazoyer N, De Schonen S, Crivello F, et al. Neural correlates of woman face processing by 2-month – old infants. NeuroImage 2002; 15: 454–461.

45. Vazba na videu: http://www. psychology. sunysb. edu/attachment/

46. Zaki J, Weber J, Bolger N, et al. The neural bases of empathic accuracy. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2009; 106: 11382–11387.

Labels
General practitioner for children and adolescents General practitioner for adults
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account