Hypoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus


Authors: Peter Novodvorský 1,2
Authors‘ workplace: Metabolické centrum s. r. o., Diabetológia, poruchy látkovej premeny a výživy, Trenčín 1;  Department of Oncology & Metabolism, Medical School, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom 2
Published in: Diab Obez 2019; 19(37): 20-26
Category:

Overview

Despite recent advances in diabetes management, such as the introduction of new insulin analogues or the use of novel technologies, hypoglycaemia continues to be a common and feared complication of insulin, sulfonylurea and glinide treated diabetes. Hypoglycaemia thus remains a major barrier for improved metabolic control. In a healthy human, blood glucose is regulated within a narrow range by physiological mechanisms preventing both hypo- and hyperglycaemia, but these mechanisms are impaired in people with diabetes. In addition, current modes of insulin delivery and its pharmacokinetics do not mimic the healthy physiology and lead to increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) remains a separate and much feared complication of diabetes. The International Hypoglycaemia Study Group have recently published a new classification of hypoglycaemia and recommend glucose concentration of < 3.0 mmol/L (54 mg/dL) to be considered clinically significant hypoglycaemia.

Received 1. 4. 2019

Accepted 24. 4. 2019

Keywords:

hypoglycemia – adrenaline – glucagon – insulin – nocturnal hypo­glycaemia – type 1 diabetes – type 2 diabetes


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