Uterus transplantation in the treatment of female infertility: the pathologist’s perspective

Authors: Jan Balko 1;  Josef Zámečník 1;  Roman Chmel 2
Authors‘ workplace: Ústav patologie a molekulární medicíny 2. LF UK a FN Motol, Praha 1;  Gynekologicko-porodnická klinika 2. LF UK a FN Motol, Praha 2
Published in: Čes.-slov. Patol., 58, 2022, No. 1, p. 57-60


Uterus transplantation is a new experimental treatment method of absolute uterine factor infertility which affects 3-5% of infertile women. Absolute uterine factor infertility includes infertile women with agenesis or severe malformation of the uterus, several acquired uterine diseases causing infertility, and patients of fertile age after hysterectomy because of various causes. Uterus transplantation is considered a new method of assisted reproduction which allows women with absolute uterine factor infertility to have own biological offspring. However, uterus transplantation is considered a radical method of reproduction by some ethicists. Nevertheless, recent analysis of newborns from transplanted uterus has shown high level of childbirths of mature and near-to-term newborns and did not confirm increased risk for both babies and mothers. Therefore, together with gestational surrogacy and adoption, uterus transplantation is nowadays considered promising and unique solution for women with absolute uterine factor infertility.

Similarly to other solid organ transplants, the pathologist should be an integral part of the multidisciplinary uterus transplantation research teams. The primary role of the pathologist is histopathological evaluation of rejection changes in the biopsy samples from the ectocervix of the uterine allografts that is based on the provisional scoring system suggested by Swedish pioneers in uterus transplantation research. As the word provisional suggests, this scoring system is continuously studied and the principles of the evaluation of rejection after uterus transplantation could be adjusted in the future.


Transplantation – Uterus – rejection – ectocervical biopsy – grading


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Anatomical pathology Forensic medical examiner Toxicology
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