Zoonotic Dermatophytoses: Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis, Etiology, Treatment, Epidemiological Situation in the Czech Republic


Authors: V. Hubka 1,2;  A. Čmoková 1,2;  A. Peano 3;  T. Větrovský 4;  R. Dobiáš 5,6;  N. Mallátová 7;  P. Lysková 6,8;  K. Mencl 9;  H. Janouškovcová 10;  J. Stará 11;  I. Kuklová 11;  J. Doležalová 12;  P. Hamal 6;  L. Svobodová 6;  J. Koubková 13;  M. Kolařík 1,2
Authors‘ workplace: Katedra botaniky, Přírodovědecká fakulta, Univerzita Karlova, Praha, vedoucí katedry doc. RNDr. Yvonne Němcová, Ph. D. 1;  Ústav mikrobiologie, Fakultní nemocnice Plzeň, přednosta ústavu RNDr. Karel Fajfrlík, Ph. D. 10;  Centrum pro dermatomykózy, Dermatovenerologická klinika 1. lékařské fakulty Univerzity Karlovy a Všeobecné fakultní nemocnice v Praze, přednosta kliniky prof. MUDr. Jiří Štork, CSc. 11;  Oddělení klinické mikrobiologie a imunologie, Centrum laboratorní medicíny, Krajská nemocnice Liberec, a. s., přednostka Centra: MUDr. Renata Procházková, Ph. D. 12;  Labvet. cz, s. r. o., veterinární laboratoř, Praha, vedoucí laboratoře MVDr. Hana Prausová 13;  Laboratoř genetiky a metabolismu hub, Mikrobiologický ústav, Akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i., Praha, vedoucí laboratoře Mgr. Miroslav Kolařík, Ph. D. 2;  Department of Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy 3;  Laboratoř environmentální mikrobiologie, Mikrobiologický ústav, Akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i., Praha, vedoucí laboratoře RNDr. Petr Baldrian, PhD. 4;  Oddělení bakteriologie a mykologie, Centrum klinických laboratoří, Zdravotní ústav se sídlem v Ostravě, vedoucí oddělení RNDr. Vladislav Holec 5;  Ústav mikrobiologie, Lékařská fakulta Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci a Fakultní nemocnice Olomouc, přednosta ústavu prof. MUDr. Milan Kolář, Ph. D. 6;  Pracoviště parazitologie a mykologie, Centrální laboratoře Nemocnice České Budějovice a. s., České Budějovice, ředitel nemocnice MUDr. Břetislav Shon 7;  Laboratoř lékařské mykologie, oddělení parazitologie, mykologie a mykobakteriologie Praha, Zdravotní ústav se sídlem v Ústí nad Labem, Praha, vedoucí oddělení Ing. Josef Čermák, Ph. D. 8;  Oddělení klinické mikrobiologie, Pardubická krajská nemocnice, a. s., Pardubice, primář oddělení MUDr. et Mgr. Eva Zálabská, Ph. D. 9
Published in: Čes-slov Derm, 93, 2018, No. 6, p. 208-235
Category: Reviews (Continuing Medical Education)

Overview

Zoophilic dermatophytes are the most important agents of the superficial mycoses in domestic and farm animals, and are often transmitted to humans. This group includes approximately ten specialized parasitic fungi belonging to the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. While infections in animals have often mild symptoms or are asymptomatic, human infections typically ma­nifest as highly inflammatory infections of skin or hairy parts of the head. The children are the most frequently affected group. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive interdisciplinary overview of the clinical picture and diagnostic methods of these infections in human and domestic animals, and to summarize available data on the main causal agents and their prevalence in animals. This knowledge is essential for understanding the dynamic of the disease transmission and the local and global epidemiological situation. Separate subchapters are focused on treatment of zoonotic infections and prevention of their spread. An epidemiological analysis of 2361 tinea corporis cases (1004 of zoonotic origin) and 79 tinea capitis cases (60 zoonotic) diagnosed during five-year study in Czech patients is presented.

Keywords:

Microsporum canis – tinea capitis – tinea corporis – Trichophyton benhamiae – zoophilic dermatophytes


Sources

1. ABARCA, M., CASTELLÁ, G., MARTORELL, J. et al. Trichophyton erinacei in pet hedgehogs in Spain: occurrence and revision of its taxonomic status. Med. Mycol., 2017, 55, p. 164–172.

2. AGNETTI, F., RIGHI, C., SCOCCIA, E. et al. Trichophyton verrucosum infection in cattle farms of Umbria (Central Italy) and transmission to humans. Mycoses, 2014, 57, p. 400–405.

3. AHDY, A. M., SAYED-AHMED, M. Z., YOUNIS, E. E. et al. Prevalence and potential risk factors of dermatophytosis in Arabian horses in Egypt. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 2016, 37, p. 71–76.

4. AL-ANI, F., YOUNES, F., AL-RAWASHDEH, O. Ringworm infection of cattle and horses in Jordan. Acta Vet. Brno, 2002, 71, p. 55–60.

5. AL-DUBOON, A., MUHSIN, T., AL-RUBAIY, K. Tinea capitis in Basrah, Iraq. Mycoses, 1999, 42, p. 331–333.

6. ÁLVAREZ-MOSQUERA, I., HERNÁEZ, S., SÁNCHEZ, J. et al. Diagnosis of superficial mycoses by a rapid and effective PCR method from samples of scales, nails and hair. Mycopathologia, 2018, 183, p. 777–783.

7. BALOGUN, R., JEGEDE, H., JIBRIL, A. et al. Prevalence and distribution of dermatophytes among domestic horses in Kwara state, Nigeria. Sokoto J. Vet. Sci., 2017, 15, p. 1–6.

8. BOND, R. Superficial veterinary mycoses. Clin. Dermatol., 2010, 28, p. 226–236.

9. BONIFAZ, A., RAMÍREZ‐TAMAYO, T., SAÚL, A. Tinea barbae (tinea sycosis): experience with nine cases. J. Dermatol., 2003, 30, p. 898–903.

10. BOYANOWSKI, K. J., IHRKE, P. J., MORIELLO, K. A. et al. Isolation of fungal flora from the hair coats of shelter cats in the Pacific coastal USA. Vet. Dermatol., 2000, 11, p. 143–150.

11. BUCHTA, V., SLEZÁK, R., ŠPAČEK, J. et al. Současné možnosti léčby kožních a slizničních mykóz. Med. Pro Praxi, 2009, 6, p. 155–164.

12. CABAÑES, F., ABARCA, M. L., BRAGULAT, M. R. Dermatophytes isolated from domestic animals in Barcelona, Spain. Mycopathologia, 1997, 137, p. 107–113.

13. CABAÑES, F., ABARCA, M. L., BRAGULAT, M. R. et al. Seasonal study of the fungal biota of the fur of dogs. Mycopathologia, 1996, 133, p. 1–7.

14. CAFARCHIA, C., CAMARDA, A., COCCIOLI, C. et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for dermatophytoses in rabbit farms. Med. Mycol., 2010, 48, p. 975–980.

15. CAFARCHIA, C., GASSER, R. B., FIGUEREDO, L. A. et al. An improved molecular diagnostic assay for canine and feline dermatophytosis. Med. Mycol., 2013, 51, p. 136–143.

16. CAFARCHIA, C., IATTA, R., LATROFA, M. S. et al. Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny and evolution of dermatophytes. Infect. Genet. Evol., 2013, 20, p. 336–351.

17. CAFARCHIA, C., ROMITO, D., SASANELLI, M. et al. The epidemiology of canine and feline dermatophytoses in southern Italy. Mycoses, 2004, 47, p. 508–513.

18. CAFARCHIA, C., WEIGL, S., FIGUEREDO, L. A. et al. Molecular identification and phylogenesis of dermatophytes isolated from rabbit farms and rabbit farm workers. Vet. Microbiol., 2012, 154, p. 395–402.

19. CASTRIOTA, M., RICCI, F., PARADISI, A. et al. Erythema nodosum induced by kerion celsi of the scalp in a child: a case report and mini‐review of literature. Mycoses, 2013, 56, p. 200–203.

20. COPETTI, M. V., SANTURIO, J. M., CAVALHEIRO, A. S. et al. Dermatophytes isolated from dogs and cats suspected of dermatophytosis in southern Brazil. Acta Sci. Vet., 2006, 34, p. 119–124.

21. COURTELLEMONT, L., CHEVRIER, S., DEGEILH, B. et al. Epidemiology of Trichophyton verrucosum infection in Rennes University Hospital, France: A 12-year retrospective study. Med. Mycol., 2017, 55, p. 720–724.

22. ČMOKOVÁ, A., HUBKA, V. New and emerging zoophilic dermatophytes in Europe. Med. Mycol., 2018, 56, p. S54.

23. DĄBROWSKA, I., DWORECKA-KASZAK, B., BRILLOWSKA-DĄBROWSKA, A. The use of a one-step PCR method for the identification of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection of pets. Acta Biochim. Pol., 2014, 61, p. 375–378.

24. DE HOOG, G. S., DUKIK, K., MONOD, M. et al. Toward a novel multilocus phylogenetic taxonomy for the dermatophytes. Mycopathologia, 2017, 182, p. 5–31.

25. DEBNATH, C., MITRA, T., KUMAR, A. et al. Detection of dermatophytes in healthy companion dogs and cats in eastern India. Iran J. Vet. Res., 2016, 17, p. 20–24.

26. DEBOER, D., MORIELLO, K. Dermatophytosis. In Greene C (eds), Infectious diseases of the dog and cat, 3rd edn. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2006, p. 550–565.

27. DEVLIOTOU‐PANAGIOTIDOU, D., KOUSSIDOU--EREMONDI, T. Efficacy and tolerability of 8 weeks’ treatment with terbinafine in children with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis: a comparison of three doses. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol., 2004, 18, p. 155–159.

28. DONNELLY, T. M., RUSH, E. M., LACKNER, P. A. Ringworm in small exotic pets. Semin. Avian Exotic Pet Med., 2000, 9, p. 82–93.

29. DRAKE, L. A., DINEHART, S. M., FARMER, E. R. et al. Guidelines of care for superficial mycotic infections of the skin: tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea faciei, tinea manuum, and tinea pedis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 1996, 34, p. 282–286.

30. DROUOT, S., MIGNON, B., FRATTI, M. et al. Pets as the main source of two zoonotic species of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex in Switzerland, Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and Arthroderma benhamiae. Vet. Dermatol., 2009, 20, p. 13–18.

31. DUARTE, A., CASTRO, I., DA FONSECA, I. M. P. et al. Survey of infectious and parasitic diseases in stray cats at the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal. J. Feline Med. Surg., 2010, 12, p. 441–446.

32. ECKERT, J., ERTAS, B., FALK, T. et al. Species identification of dermatophytes in paraffin‐embedded biopsies with a new polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region and comparison with histopathological features. Brit. J. Dermatol., 2016, 174, p. 869–877.

33. ELY, J. W., ROSENFELD, S., STONE, M. S. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections. Am. Fam. Phy­sician, 2014, 90, p. 702–711.

34. ENGLISH, M. P., EVANS, C. D., HEWITT, M. et al. Hedgehog ringworm. Br. Med. J., 1962, 1, p. 149–151.

35. ENGLISH, M. P., MORRIS, P. Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in hedgehog nests. Sabouraudia, 1969, 7, p. 118–121.

36. FEHR, M. Zoonotic potential of dermatophytosis in small mammals. J. Exot. Pet Med., 2015, 24, p. 308–316.

37. FRAGA, C. F., SPANAMBERG, A., FERREIRO, L. et al. Dermatophytes in cats without dermatopathies in the metropolitan area of Florianópolis, Brazil. Acta Sci. Vet., 2017, 45, p. 1430.

38. FREALLE, E., RODRIGUE, M., GANTOIS, N. et al. Phylogenetic analysis of Trichophyton mentagrophytes human and animal isolates based on MnSOD and ITS sequence comparison. Microbiology, 2007, 153, p. 3466–3477.

39. GINTER‐HANSELMAYER, G., WEGER, W., ILKIT, M. et al. Epidemiology of tinea capitis in Europe: cur­rent state and changing patterns. Mycoses, 2007, 50, Suppl. 2, p. 6–13.

40. GRAHAM, I. Study of chinchilla fur chewing. Vet. Bull., 1961, 31, p. 699.

41. GUDDING, R., LUND, A. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine dermatophytosis. Can. Vet. J., 1995, 36, p. 302–306.

42. GUILLOT, J., DECAUDIN, B., BULLIOT, C. et al. Emergence of Trichophyton benhamiae in guinea pigs: a retrospective study from the mycology laboratory of the veterinary college of Alfort. Med. Mycol., 2018, 56, p. S55.

43. GUPTA, A. K., COOPER, E. A. Update in antifungal therapy of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia, 2008, 166, p. 353–367.

44. GUPTA, A. K., MAYS, R. R., VERSTEEG, S. G. et al. Tinea capitis in children: a systematic review of management. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol., 2018, 32, p. 2264–2274.

45. HAGEN, K., GORHAM, J. Dermatomycoses in fur animals: chinchilla, ferret, mink and rabbit. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin., 1972, 67, p. 43–48.

46. HALSBY, K. D., WALSH, A. L., CAMPBELL, C. et al. Healthy animals, healthy people: zoonosis risk from animal contact in pet shops, a systematic review of the literature. PLoS One, 2014, 9, p. e89309.

47. HAMEED, K., RIAZ, F. C., NAWAZ, M. A. et al. Trichophyton verrucosum infection in livestock in the Chitral District (Pakistan). J. Inf. Develop. Countries, 2017, 11, p. 326–333.

48. HAVLICKOVA, B., CZAIKA, V., FRIEDRICH, M. Epidemiological trends in skin mycoses worldwide. Mycoses, 2008, 51, Suppl. 4, p. 2–15.

49. HAY, R. Tinea capitis: current status. Mycopathologia, 2017, 182, p. 87–93.

50. HAYETTE, M.-P., SACHELI, R. Dermatophytosis, trends in epidemiology and diagnostic approach. Curr. Fungal Infect. Rep., 2015, 9, p. 164–179.

51. HOPPMANN, E., BARRON, H. W. Rodent dermatology. J. Exot. Pet Med., 2007, 16, p. 238–255.

52. HUBKA, V., ČMOKOVÁ, A., SKOŘEPOVÁ, M. et al. Současný vývoj v taxonomii dermatofytů a doporučení pro pojmenovávání klinicky významných druhů. Čes-slov. Derm., 2014, 89, p. 151–165.

53. HUBKA, V., PEANO, A., CMOKOVA, A. et al. Common and Emerging Dermatophytoses in Animals: Well-Known and New Threats. In Seyedmousavi S, et al. (eds), Emerging and Epizootic Fungal Infections in Animals. Cham: Springer; 2018, p. 31–79.

54. HUBKA, V., VĚTROVSKÝ, T., DOBIÁŠOVÁ, S. et al. Molekulární epidemiologie dermatofytóz v České republice: výsledky dvouleté studie. Čes-slov. Derm., 2014, 89, p. 167–174.

55. CHADEGANIPOUR, M., MOHAMMADI, R., SHADZI, S. A 10‐year study of dermatophytoses in Isfahan, Iran. J. Clin. Lab. Anal., 2016, 30, p. 103–107.

56. CHEN, X., JIANG, X., YANG, M. et al. Systemic antifungal therapy for tinea capitis in children: an abridged Cochrane review. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2017, 76, p. 368–374.

57. CHERMETTE, R., FERREIRO, L., GUILLOT, J. Dermatophytoses in animals. Mycopathologia, 2008, 166, p. 385–405.

58. INTRA, J., SARTO, C., TIBERTI, N. et al. Genus‐level identification of dermatophytes by MALDI‐TOF MS after 2 days of colony growth. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 2018, 67, p. 136–143.

59. KAKOUROU, T., UKSAL, U. Guidelines for the management of tinea capitis in children. Pediatr. Dermatol., 2010, 27, p. 226–228.

60. KIELIGER, S., GLATZ, M., COZZIO, A. et al. Tinea capitis and tinea faciei in the Zurich area–an 8‐year survey of trends in the epidemiology and treatment patterns. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol., 2015, 29, p. 1524–1529.

61. KIMURA, U., YOKOYAMA, K., HIRUMA, M. et al. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (molecular type Arthroderma benhamiae) mimics impetigo: a case report and literature review of cases in Japan. Med. Mycol. J., 2015, 56, p. E1–E5.

62. KOMAREK, J., WURST, Z. Dermatophytes in clinically healthy dogs and cats. Vet. Med. (Praha), 1989, 34, p. 59–63.

63. KRAEMER, A., HEIN, J., HEUSINGER, A. et al. Clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis. Mycoses, 2013, 56, p. 168–172.

64. KRAEMER, A., MUELLER, R., WERCKENTHIN, C. et al. Dermatophytes in pet guinea pigs and rabbits. Vet. Microbiol., 2012, 157, p. 208–213.

65. KUPSCH, C., BERLIN, M., GRÄSER, Y. Dermophytes and guinea pigs: An underestimated danger? Hautarzt, 2017, 68, p. 827–830.

66. KUPSCH, C., OHST, T., PANKEWITZ, F. et al. The agony of choice in dermatophyte diagnostics–performance of different molecular tests and culture in the detection of T. rubrum and T. interdigitale. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 2016, 22, p. 735.e11–735.e17.

67. KURTDEDE, A., HAYDARDEDEOGLU, A., ALIHOSSEINI, H. et al. Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in a dog: a case report. Vet. Med. (Praha), 2014, 59, p. 349–351.

68. L‘OLLIVIER, C., CASSAGNE, C., NORMAND, A.-C. et al. A MALDI-TOF MS procedure for clinical dermatophyte species identification in the routine laboratory. Med. Mycol., 2013, 51, p. 713–720.

69. LEWIS, D. T., FOIL, C. S., HOSGOOD, G. Epidemiology and clinical features of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats at Louisiana State University: 1981–1990. Vet. Dermatol., 1991, 2, p. 53–58.

70. LYSKOVÁ, P., DOBIÁŠ, R., KUKLOVÁ, I. et al. Pět případů lidských dermatofytóz vyvolaných zoofilním druhem Trichophyton erinacei přeneseným z ježků. Čes-slov. Derm., 2018, 6, 237–243.

71. LYSKOVÁ, P., HUBKA, V., PETŘIČÁKOVÁ, A. et al. Equine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton bullosum, a poorly known zoophilic dermatophyte masquerading as T. verrucosum. Mycopathologia, 2015, 180, p. 407–419.

72. MALE, O., FRITSCH, P. Trichophyton mentagrophytes-caused epidemic and enzootic disease in a chinchilla farm. Mykosen, 1966, 4, p. 74–84.

73. MALLÁTOVÁ, N., UTTLOVÁ, K., SMRČKA, V. et al. Trichophyton verrucosum jako neobvyklý původce infekce rány ve vlasaté části hlavy. Čes.-slov. Pediat., 2009, 64, p. 476–479.

74. MANCIANTI, F., NARDONI, S., CECCHI, S. et al. Dermatophytes isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats in Tuscany, Italy during a 15-year-period. Mycopathologia, 2002, 156, p. 13–18.

75. MAURICE, M. N., KAZEEM, H. M., KWANASHIE, C. N. et al. Equine dermatophytosis: a survey of its occurrence and species distribution among horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Scientifica, 2016, 2016, ID 8309253.

76. MCALLER, R. An epizootic in laboratory guinea pigs due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Aust. Vet. J., 1980, 56, p. 234–236.

77. METIN, A., SUBAŞI, Ş., BOZKURT, H. et al. Tinea capitis in Van, Turkey. Mycoses, 2002, 45, p. 492–495.

78. MILLER, L., HURLEY, K. Infectious disease management in animal shelters. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, 400 p.

79. MILLER, W. H., GRIFFIN, C. E., CAMPBELL, K. L. Fungal and algal skin diseases: dermatophytosis. In Miller WH, et al. (eds), Muller and Kirk‘s Small Animal Dermatology, 7th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2013, p. 231–243.

80. MING, P. X., TI, Y. L. X., BULMER, G. S. Outbreak of Trichophyton verrucosum in China transmitted from cows to humans. Mycopathologia, 2006, 161, p. 225–228.

81. MORETTI, A., AGNETTI, F., MANCIANTI, F. et al. Dermatophytosis in animals: epidemiological, clinical and zoonotic aspects. G. Ital. Dermatol. Venereol., 2013, 148, p. 563–572.

82. MORETTI, A., BONCIO, L., PASQUALI, P. et al. Epidemiological aspects of dermatophyte infections in horses and cattle. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B, 1998, 45, p. 205–208.

83. MORIELLO, K. A. Kennel disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp. Vet. Med. Int., 2015, 2015, Article ID 853937.

84. MORIELLO, K. A., COYNER, K., PATERSON, S. et al. Diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats. Vet. Dermatol., 2017, 28, p. 266–268.

85. MORIELLO, K. A., KUNKLE, G., DEBOER, D. J. Isolation of dermatophytes from the haircoats of stray cats from selected animal shelters in two different geographic regions in the United States. Vet. Dermatol., 1994, 5, p. 57–62.

86. MORRIS, P., ENGLISH, M. P. Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in British hedgehogs. Sabouraudia, 1969, 7, p. 122–128.

87. MOZES, R., PEARL, D. L., ROUSSEAU, J. et al. Dermatophyte surveillance in cats in three animal shelters in Ontario, Canada. J. Feline Med. Surg., 2015, 19, p. 66–69.

88. NASERI, A., FATA, A., NAJAFZADEH, M. J. et al. Surveillance of dermatophytosis in northeast of Iran (Mashhad) and review of published studies. Mycopathologia, 2013, 176, p. 247–253.

89. NENOFF, P., KRÜGER, C., PAASCH, U. et al. Mycology – an update Part 3: Dermatomycoses: topical and systemic therapy. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges., 2015, 13, p. 387–410.

90. NENOFF, P., KRÜGER, C., SCHALLER, J. et al. Mycology – an update Part 2: Dermatomycoses: Clinical picture and diagnostics. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges., 2014, 12, p. 749–777.

91. NENOFF, P., SCHULZE, I., UHRLAß, S. et al. Kerion Celsi durch den zoophilen Dermatophyten Trichophyton species von Arthroderma benhamiae bei einem Kind. Hautarzt, 2013, 64, p. 846–850.

92. NWEZE, E. Dermatophytosis in Western Africa: a review. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2010, 13, p. 649–656.

93. NWEZE, I., EKE, I. Dermatophytosis in Northern Africa. Mycoses, 2016, 59, p. 137–144.

94. OLLHOFF, R. Exame micologico e acompanhamento clinico de bovinos infectados pela forma latente do Trichophyton verrucosum (Bodin, 1902). Arch. Vet. Sci, 2003, 8, p. 205–208.

95. OUDAINA, W., BIOUGNACH, H., RIANE, S. et al. Epidemiology of tinea capitis in outpatients at the Children‘s Hospital in Rabat (Morocco). J. Mycol. Med., 2011, 21, p. 1–5.

96. OVERGAAUW, P., VAN AVERMAETE, K., MERTENS, C. et al. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops. Vet. Microbiol., 2017, 205, p. 106–109.

97. PAPINI, R., NARDONI, S., FANELLI, A. et al. High infection rate of Trichophyton verrucosum in calves from Central Italy. Zoonoses Public Health, 2009, 56, p. 59–64.

98. PARENT, D., DECROIX, J., HEENEN, M. Clinical experience with short schedules of itraconazole in the treatment of tinea corporis and/or tinea cruris. Dermatology, 1994, 189, p. 378–381.

99. PIER, A., ZANCANELLA, P. Immunization of horses against dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton equinum. Equine Pract., 1993, 15, p. 23–27.

100. PIÉRARD-FRANCHIMONT, C., HERMANNS, J.-F., COLLETTE, C. et al. Hedgehog ringworm in humans and a dog. Acta Clin. Belg., 2008, 63, p. 322–324.

101. PIHET, M., LE GOVIC, Y. Reappraisal of conventional diagnosis for dermatophytes. Mycopathologia, 2017, 182, p. 169–180.

102. PINTER, L., JURAK, Z., UKALOVIC, M. et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of dermatophytoses in dogs and cats in Croatia between 1990 and 1998. Vet. Arh., 1999, 69, p. 261–270.

103. PIRI, F., ZAREI MAHMOUDABADI, A., RONAGH, A. et al. Assessment of a pan‐dermatophyte nested‐PCR compared with conventional methods for direct detection and identification of dermatophytosis agents in animals. Mycoses, 2018, 61, p. 837–844.

104. PROVERBIO, D., PEREGO, R., SPADA, E. et al. Survey of dermatophytes in stray cats with and without skin lesions in Northern Italy. Vet. Med. Int., 2014, 2014, ID 565470.

105. REZUSTA, A., DE LA FUENTE, S., GILABERTE, Y. et al. Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures. Mycoses, 2016, 59, p. 416–418.

106. RISCO-CASTILLO, V., LE BARZIC, C., DENAES, C. et al. Trichophyton erinacei in European hedgehogs admitted to wildlife rehabilitation centers: results of a prospective epidemiological survey in Ile-de-France, France. Med. Mycol., 2018, 56, p. S82.

107. ROCHETTE, F., ENGELEN, M., VANDEN BOSSCHE, H. Antifungal agents of use in animal health–practical applications. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther., 2003, 26, p. 31–53.

108. ROUZAUD, C., HAY, R., CHOSIDOW, O. et al. Severe dermatophytosis and acquired or innate immunodeficiency: A review. J. Fungi, 2016, 2, p. 4.

109. RUDRAMURTHY, S. M., SHAW, D. Overview and update on the laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis. Clin. Dermatol. Rev., 2017, 1, p. 3–11.

110. RUTECKI, G. W., WURTZ, R., THOMSON, R. B. From animal to man: tinea barbae. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep., 2000, 2, p. 433–437.

111. SABOU, M., DENIS, J., BOULANGER, N. et al. Molecular identification of Trichophyton benhamiae in Strasbourg, France: a 9-year retrospective study. Med. Mycol., 2017, 56, p. 723–734.

112. SEEBACHER, C., BOUCHARA, J.-P., MIGNON, B. Updates on the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections. Mycopathologia, 2008, 166, p. 335–352.

113. SEKER, E., DOGAN, N. Isolation of dermatophytes from dogs and cats with suspected dermatophytosis in Western Turkey. Prev. Vet. Med., 2011, 98, p. 46–51.

114. SEYEDMOUSAVI, S., WIEDERHOLD, N. P., EBEL, F. et al. Antifungal use in veterinary practice and emergence of resistance. In Seyedmousavi S, et al. (eds), Emerging and Epizootic Fungal Infections in Animals. Cham: Springer; 2018, p. 359–402.

115. SCHECHTMAN, R. C., SILVA, N. D. V., QUARESMA, M. V. et al. Dermatoscopic findings as a complementary tool in the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent of tinea capitis. An. Bras. Dermatol., 2015, 90, p. 13–15.

116. SIEKLUCKI, U., OH, S. H., HOYER, L. L. Frequent isolation of Arthroderma benhamiae from dogs with dermatophytosis. Vet. Dermatol., 2014, 25, p. 39–41.

117. SILVER, S., VINH, D. C., EMBIL, J. M. The man who got too close to his cows. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2008, 60, p. 419–420.

118. SITTERLE, E., FREALLE, E., FOULET, F. et al. Trichophyton bullosum: a new zoonotic dermatophyte species. Med. Mycol., 2012, 50, p. 305–309.

119. SKERLEV, M., MIKLIĆ, P. The changing face of Microsporum spp infections. Clin. Dermatol., 2010, 28, p. 146–150.

120. SKOŘEPOVÁ, M. Dermatofytózy u dětí. Pediatr. Praxi, 2008, 9, p. 177–180.

121. SKOŘEPOVÁ, M. Dermatomykologie v obrazech. Praha: Galén, 2008, 95 p.

122. SKOŘEPOVÁ, M. Možnosti farmakoterapie kožních mykóz. Remedia, 2017, 27, p. 226–230.

123. SKOŘEPOVÁ, M., HUBKA, V., POLÁŠKOVÁ, S. et al. Naše první zkušenosti s infekcemi vyvolanými Arthroderma benhamiae (Trichophyton sp.). Čes--slov. Derm., 2014, 89, p. 192–198.

124. SMITH, J., MARPLES, M. J. Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei. Sabouraudia, 1964, 3, p. 1–10.

125. SPARKES, A., WERRETT, G., STOKES, C. et al. Microsporum canis: inapparent carriage by cats and the viability of arthrospores. J. Small Anim. Pract., 1994, 35, p. 397–401.

126. SUNDERKÖTTER, C., BECKER, K., KUTZNER, H. et al. Molecular diagnosis of skin infections using paraffin‐embedded tissue–review and interdisciplinary consensus. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges., 2018, 16, p. 139–147.

127. TAKAHASHI, Y., HARITANI, K., SANO, A. et al. An isolate of Arthroderma benhamiae with Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph isolated from a four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan. Jap. J. Med. Mycol., 2002, 43, p. 249–255.

128. TAKAHASHI, Y., SANO, A., TAKIZAWA, K. et al. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four--toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan. Jap. J. Med. Mycol., 2003, 44, p. 31–38.

129. THOMA‐GREBER, E., ZENKER, S., RÖCKEN, M. et al. Surgical treatment of tinea capitis in childhood. Mycoses, 2003, 46, p. 333–336.

130. TOPALOĞLU DEMIR, F., KARADAG, A. S. Are dermatophytid reactions in patients with kerion celsi much more common than previously thought? A prospective study. Pediatr. Dermatol., 2015, 32, p. 635–640.

131. TORRES-RODRIGUEZ, J., DRONDA, M., ROSSELL, J. et al. Incidence of dermatophytoses in rabbit farms in Catalonia, Spain, and its repercussion on human health. Eur. J. Epidemiol., 1992, 8, p. 326–329.

132. UHRLAß, S., KRÜGER, C., NENOFF, P. Microsporum canis: Aktuelle Daten zur Prävalenz des zoophilen Dermatophyten im mitteldeutschen Raum. Hautarzt, 2015, 66, p. 855–862.

133. UHRLAß, S., SCHROEDL, W., MEHLHORN, C. et al. Molecular epidemiology of Trichophyton quinckeanum–a zoophilic dermatophyte on the rise. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges., 2018, 16, p. 21–32.

134. VAN DAM, A., RIETVELD, A., VAN HOEVEN, S. et al. Are Dutch pet shops and animal shelters playing a role in zoonoses education? Inf. Bull., 2016, 27, p. 173–174.

135. VAN ROOIJ, P., DETANDT, M., NOLARD, N. Trichophyton mentagrophytes of rabbit origin causing family incidence of kerion: an environmental study. Mycoses, 2006, 49, p. 426–430.

136. VANGEEL, I., PASMANS, F., VANROBAEYS, M. et al. Prevalence of dermatophytes in asymptomatic guinea pigs and rabbits. Vet. Rec., 2000, 146, p. 440–441.

137. VERRIER, J., JEANNEAU-IMPARATO, L., GUIL­LET, C. et al. PCR-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for direct detection and identification of dermatophytes in veterinary mycology. Med. Mycol., 2018, p. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myy058.

138. VERRIER, J., MONOD, M. Diagnosis of dermatophytosis using molecular biology. Mycopathologia, 2017, 182, p. 193–202.

139. WEIß, R., BÖHM, K. H., MUMME, J. et al. 13 Jahre veterinärmedizinische mykologische Routinediagnostik. Dermatophytennachweise in den Jahren 1965 bis 1977. Sabouraudia, 1979, 17, p. 345–353.

140. WEITZMAN, I., MCGINNIS, M., PADHYE, A. et al. The genus Arthroderma and its later synonym Nannizzia. Mycotaxon, 1986, 25, p. 505–518.

141. WEITZMAN, I., SUMMERBELL, R. C. The dermatophytes. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 1995, 8, p. 240–259.

142. ZHAN, P., LI, D., WANG, C. et al. Epidemiological changes in tinea capitis over the sixty years of economic growth in China. Med. Mycol., 2015, 53, p. 691–698.

Labels
Dermatology & STDs Paediatric dermatology & STDs
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account