Recommendations of the Czech Society for Rheumatology for the treatment of systemic sclerosis.


Authors: R. Bečvář 1;  T. Soukup 2;  M. Tomčík 1;  P. Jansa 3
Authors‘ workplace: Revmatologický ústav, Revmatologická klinika 1. LF UK 1;  II. interní gastroenterologická klinika, Fakultní nemocnice LF UK, Hradec Králové 2;  II. interní klinika kardiologie a angiologie a Všeobecná fakultní nemocnice, 1. LF UK, Praha 3
Published in: Čes. Revmatol., 25, 2017, No. 2, p. 68-84.
Category: Recommendation

Overview

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) involves skin, blood vessels and different visceral organs and leads to sclerotisation and fibrosis which results in development of irreversible functional and structural changes. EUSTAR/EULAR group which addresses basic and clinical research of SSc has formulated recommendations for the treatment of SSc based on data that can be used in clinical practice. Management of SSc should be complex including early diagnostics of visceral organ involvement, selection of patients with high risk of progression and also non-pharmacological methods. In 2009 14 recommendations for therapy of different SSc organ manifestations were published and later in 2016 these recommendations were updated to 16 items. In 2016 more comprehensive recommendations of British Society for Rheumatology together with British Health Professionals In Rheumatology were published, which have in total 39 items. The main purpose of this article is to offer to clinical rheumatologists practical recommendations for treatment of SSc patients in current conditions of Czech Republic.

Keywords:
Systemic sclerosis, organ manifestations, recommendation, treatment, clinical trial.


Sources

1. Štork J. Sklerodemie. Galen, Praha, 1996, 8–10.

2. D´Angelo W, Fries JF, Masi AR, Schulman LE. Pathologic observations in systemic sclerosis. Am J Med 1969; 46: 428–39.

3. Ferri C, Valentini G, Cozzi F, et al. Systemic sclerosis: demographic, clinical, and serologic features and survival in 1,012 Italian patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2002; 81: 139–53.

4. Bečvář R, Soukup T, Štork J, Suchý D, Němec P, Jansa P, Fojtík Z, Horák P, Němcová D. Doporučení České revmatologické společnosti pro diagnostiku systémové sklerodermie. Čes Revmatol 2014; 22: 51–68.

5. Kowal-Bielecka O, Landewé R, Avouac R, and the EUSTAR co-authors EULAR recommendations for the treatment of systemic sclerosis: a report from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research group (EUSTAR). Ann Rheum Dis 2009; 68: 620–8.

6. Kowal-Bielecka O, Fransen J, Avouac J, and the EUSTAR co-authors. Update of EULAR recommendations for the treatment of systemic sclerosis. e-pub: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209909.

7. Denton CP, Hughes M, Gak N, Vila J, Buch MH, Chakravarty K, et al. BSR and BHPR guideline for the treatment of systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology. 2016; 55: 1906–11.

8. Gabrielli A, Avvedimento EV, Krieg T. Mechanisms of Disease: Scleroderma. New Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1989–2003.

9. Varga J, Abraham D. Systemic sclerosis: a prototypic multisystem fibrotic disorder. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 557 – 67.

10. Herrick AL. The pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Raynaud phenomenon. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2012; 8: 469 – 79.

11. Wigley FM, Flavahan NA. Raynaud's Phenomenon. New England J Med 2016; 375: 556–65.

12. Thompson AE, Shea B, Welch V, Fenlon D, Pope JE. Calcium-channel blockers for Raynaud's phenomenon in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 1841–7.

13. Thompson AE, Pope JE. Calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon: a meta-analysis. Rheumatology 2005; 44: 145–50.

14. Ennis H, Hughes M, Anderson ME, Wilkinson J, Herrick AL.Calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2016; 2: CD002069.

15. Roustit M, Blaise S, Allanore Y, Carpentier PH, Caglayan E, Cracowski JL. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for the treatment of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Ann Rheum Dis 2013; 72: 1696–9.

16. Rademaker M, Cooke ED, Almond NE et al. Comparison of intravenous infusions of iloprost and oral nifedipine in treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon in patients with systemic sclerosis: a double blind randomised study. Brit Med J 1989; 298: 561–4.

17. Scorza R, Caronni M, Mascagni B et al. Effects of long-term cyclic iloprost therapy in systemic sclerosis with Raynaud's phenomenon. A randomized, controlled study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2001; 19: 503–8.

18. Coleiro B, Marshall SE, Denton CP et al. Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Rheumatology 2001; 40: 1038–43.

19. Dziadzio M, Denton CP, Smith R et al. Losartan therapy for Raynaud's phenomenon and scleroderma: clinical and biochemical findings in a fifteen-week, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 2646–55.

20. Pope J, Fenlon D, Thompson A, Shea B, Furst D, Wells G, et al. Prazosin for Raynaud's phenomenon in progressive systemic sclerosis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2000: CD000956.

21. Ladak K, Pope JE. A review of the effects of statins in systemic sclerosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2016; 45: 698–705.

22. Hartzell TL, Makhni EC, Sampson C. Long-term results of periarterial sympathectomy. J Hand Surg 2009; 34: 1454–60.

23. Yee AM, Hotchkiss RN, Paget SA. Adventitial stripping: a digit saving procedure in refractory Raynaud's phenomenon. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 269–76.

24. Neumeister MW. The role of botulinum toxin in vasospastic disorders of the hand. Hand Clinics 2015; 31: 23 – 37.

25. Tingey T, Shu J, Smuczek J, Pope J. Meta-analysis of healing and prevention of digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Care & Res 2013; 65: 1460–71.

26. Badesch DB, Tapson VF, McGoon MD et al. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol for pulmonary hypertension due to the scleroderma spectrum of disease. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 425–34.

27. Shenoy PD, Kumar S, Jha LK, Choudhary SK, Singh U, Misra R, et al. Efficacy of tadalafil in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon resistant to vasodilator therapy: a double-blind randomized cross-over trial. Rheumatology 2010; 49(12): 2420–8.

28. Korn JH, Mayes M, Matucci Cerinic M et al. Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: prevention by treatment with bosentan, an oral endothelin receptor antagonist. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 3985–93.

29. Matucci-Cerinic M, Denton CP, Furst DE et al. Bosentan treatment of digital ulcers related to systemic sclerosis: results from the RAPIDS-2 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2011; 70: 32–8.

30. Khanna D, Denton CP, Merkel PA et al. Effect of macitentan on the development of new ischemic digital ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis: DUAL-1 and DUAL-2 Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA 2016; 315: 1975–88.

31. Moran ME. Scleroderma and evidence based non-pharmaceutical treatment modalities for digital ulcers: a systematic review. J Wound Care 2014; 23: 510–6.

32. Agca R, Heslinga SC, Rollefstad S, et al. EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disorders: 2015/2016 update. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76: 17–28.

33. Atzeni F, Turiel M, Caporali R et al. The effect of pharmacological therapy on the cardiovascular system of patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. Autoimmunity Rev 2010; 9: 835–9.

34. Poormoghim H, Lucas M, Fertig N, Medsger TA Jr. Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma: demographic, clinical, and serologic features and survival in forty-eight patients. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 444–51.

35. LeRoy EC, Black CM, Fleischmajer R et al. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis): classification, subsets and pathogenesis. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 202–5.

36. Pellar RE, Pope JE. Evidence-based management of systemic sclerosis: Navigating recommendations and guidelines. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2016 Dec 9. pii: S0049-0172(16)30464-4. doi: 10.1016

37. Van den Hoogen FH, Boerbooms AM, Swaak AJ, Rasker JJ, van Lier HJ, van de Putte LB. Comparison of methotrexate with placebo in the treatment of systemic sclerosis: a 24 week randomized double-blind trial, followed by a 24 week observational trial. Brit J Rheumatol 1996; 35: 364–72.

38. Pope JE, Bellamy N, Seibold JR et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methotrexate versus placebo in early diffuse scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 1351–8.

39. Takehara K. Treatment of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis patients in Japan by low-dose corticosteroids for skin involvement. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2004; 22 (Suppl 33): S87–9.

40. Tashkin DP, Roth MD, Clements PJ et al. Mycophenolate mofetil versus oral cyclophosphamide in scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease (SLS II): a randomised controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial. Lancet Respir Med 2016; 4: 708–19.

41. Tashkin DP, Elashoff R, Clements PJ et al. Cyclophosphamide versus placebo in scleroderma lung disease. New England J Med 2006; 354: 2655–66.

42. Paone C, Chiarolanza I, Cuomo G et al. Twelve-month azathioprine as maintenance therapy in early diffuse systemic sclerosis patients treated for 1-year with low dose cyclophosphamide pulse therapy. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 613–6.

43. Hoyles RK, Ellis RW, Wellsbury J et al. A multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide followed by oral azathioprine for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 3962–70.

44. Nadashkevich O, Davis P, Fritzler M, Kovalenko W. A randomized unblinded trial of cyclophosphamide versus azathioprine in the treatment of systemic sclerosis. Clin Rheumatol 2006; 25: 205–12.

45. Stratton RJ, Wilson H, Black CM. Pilot study of anti-thymocyte globulin plus mycophenolate mofetil in recent-onset diffuse scleroderma. Rheumatology 2001; 40: 84–8.

46. Derk CT, Grace E, Shenin M, Naik M, Schulz S, Xiong W. A prospective open-label study of mycophenolate mofetil for the treatment of diffuse systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology 2009; 48: 1595–9.

47. Herrick AL, Lunt M, Whidby N et al. Observational study of treatment outcome in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 2010; 37: 116 – 24.

48. Jordan S, Distler JH, Maurer B et al. Effects and safety of rituximab in systemic sclerosis: an analysis from the European Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) group. Ann Rheum Dis 2015; 74: 1188–94.

49. Mc Queen FM, Solanki K. Rituximab in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: should we be using it today? Rheumatology 2015; 54: 757–67.

50. Khanna D, Denton CP, Jahreis A et al. Safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tocilizumab in adults with systemic sclerosis (faSScinate): a phase 2, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet 2016; 87: 2630–40.

51. Sanges S, Riviere S, Mekinian A et al. Intravenous immunoglobulins in systemic sclerosis: Data from a French nationwide cohort of 46 patients and review of the literature. Autoimmun Rev 2017; 16: 377–384.

52. Willems LM, Vriezekolk JE, Schouffoer AA et al. Effectiveness of nonpharmacologic interventions in systemic sclerosis: A systematic review. Arthritis Care & Res 2015; 67: 1426–39.

53. Galie N, Humbert M, Vachiery JL, et al. 2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: The Joint Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS): Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC), International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 67–119.

54. Mukerjee D, St George D, Coleiro B, et al. Prevalence and outcome in systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: application of a registry approach. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 1088–93.

55. McGoon M, Gutterman D, Steen V, et al. Screening, early detection, and diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest 2004; 126: 14S–34S.

56. Channick RN, Simonneau G, Sitbon O, Robbins IM, Frost A, Tapson VF, et al. Effects of the dual endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a randomised placebo-controlled study. Lancet 2001; 358: 1119–23.

57. Denton CP, Humbert M, Rubin L, Black CM. Bosentan treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension related to connective tissue disease: a subgroup analysis of the pivotal clinical trials and their open-label extensions. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 1336–40.

58. Rubin LJ, Badesch DB, Barst RJ, Galie N, Black CM, Keogh A, et al. Bosentan therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 896–903.

59. Galie N, Hinderliter AL, Torbicki A, Fourme T, Simonneau G, Pulido T, et al. Effects of the oral endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan on echocardiographic and doppler measures in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41: 1380–6.

60. Humbert M, Barst RJ, Robbins IM, Channick RN, Galie` N, Boonstra A, et al. Combination of bosentan with epoprostenol in pulmonary arterial hypertension: BREATHE-2. Eur Respir J 2004; 24: 353–9.

61. Pulido T, Adzerikho I, Channick RN et al. Macitentan and morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med 2013; 369: 809–18.

62. Wilkins MR, Paul GA, Strange JW et al. Sildenafil versus Endothelin Receptor Antagonist for Pulmonary Hypertension (SERAPH) study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171: 1292–7.

63. Galie N, Ghofrani HA, Torbicki A, Barst RJ, Rubin LJ, Badesch D, et al. Sildenafil Use in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (SUPER) Study Group. Sildenafil citrate therapy forpulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 2148–57.

64. Galiè N, Denton CP, Dardi F et al. Tadalafil in idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) compared to PAH associated with connective tissue disease. Int J Cardiol 2017; 235: 67–72.

65. Humbert M, Coghlan JG, Ghofrani HA et al. Riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue disease: results from PATENT-1 and PATENT-2. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76: 422–426.

66. Badesch DB, Tapson VF, McGoon MD et al. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol for pulmonary hypertension due to the scleroderma spectrum of disease. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 425–34.

67. Simonneau G, Barst RJ, Galie N, Naeije R, Rich S, Bourge RC, et al. Treprostinil Study Group. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of treprostinil, a prostacyclin analogue, in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165: 800–49.

68. Oudiz RJ, Schilz RJ, Barst RJ, Galie N, Rich S, Rubin LJ, et al. Treprostinil Study Group. Treprostinil, a prostacyclin analogue, in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue disease. Chest 2004; 126: 420–7.

69. Badesch DB, Abman SH, Simonneau G, Rubin LJ, McLaughlin VV. Medical therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension: updated ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2007; 131: 1917–28.

70. Sitbon O, Humbert M, Nunes H, et al. Long-term intravenous epoprostenol infusion in primary pulmonary hypertension: prognostic factors and survival. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40: 780–8.

71. Steen VD, Conte C, Owens GR, Medsger TA Jr. Severe restrictive lung disease in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 1283–9.

72. Cappelli S, Bellando Randone S, Camiciottoli G et al. Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis: where do we stand? Eur Respir Rev 2015; 24: 411–9.

73. Fan MH, Feghali-Bostwick CA, Silver RM. Update on scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2014; 26: 630–6.

74. Goldin J, Elashoff R, Kim HJ et al. Treatment of scleroderma-interstitial lung disease with cyclophosphamide is associated with less progressive fibrosis on serial thoracic high-resolution CT scan than placebo: findings from the scleroderma lung study. Chest 2009; 136: 1333–40.

75. Tashkin DP, Elashoff R, Clements PJ et al. Effects of 1-year treatment with cyclophosphamide on outcomes at 2 years in scleroderma lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176: 1026–34.

76. American Thoracic Society. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. diagnosis and treatment. International consensus statement. American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161: 646–64.

77. Burt RK, Shah SJ, Dill K et al. Autologous non-myeloablative haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation compared with pulse cyclophosphamide once per month for systemic sclerosis (ASSIST): an open-label, randomised phase 2 trial. Lancet 2011; 378: 498–506.

78. Van Laar JM, Farge D, Sont JK et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation vs intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014; 311: 2490–8.

79. Sullivan KM, Shah A, Sarantopoulos S, Furst DE. Review: Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Scleroderma: Effective Immunomodulatory Therapy for Patients With Pulmonary Involvement. Arthritis Rheum 2016; 68: 2361–71.

80. Del Papa N, Onida F, Zaccara E et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has better outcomes than conventional therapies in patients with rapidly progressive systemic sclerosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2017; 52(1): 53–58.

81. Denton CP, Hudson M. Renal cisis and other renal manifestations of scleroderma. In: Varga J, Denton CP, Wigley FM, Allanore Y, Kulana M eds. Scleroderma from pathogenesis to compherensive management. 2nd ed. Springer New York 2017: 317–31.

82. Steen VD, Medsger TA Jr. Long-term outcomes of scleroderma renal crisis. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 600–3.

83. Helfrich DJ, Banner B, Steen VD et al. Normotensive renal failure in Systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 1128–34.

84. Teixeira L, Mouthon L, Mahr A, et al. Mortality and risk factors of Scleroderma renal crisis: a French retrospective study of 50 patients. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 110–16.

85. Guillevin L, Bérezné A, Seror R, et al. Scleroderma renal crisis: a retrospective multicentre study on 91 patients and 427 controls. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2012; 51: 460–7.

86. Hesselstrand R, Scheja A, Wuttge DM. Scleroderma renal crisis in a Swedish systemic sclerosis cohort: survival, renal outcome, and RNA polymerase III antibodies as a risk factor. Scand J Rheumatol 2012; 41: 39–43.

87. Montanelli, G., Beretta, L., Santaniello, A. & Scorza, R. Effect of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and glucocorticoids on the prevention and development of scleroderma renal crisis in an Italian case series. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013; 31(Suppl.76): 135–9.

88. Iudici, M., van der Goes, M. C., Valentini, G., Bijlsma, J. W.Glucocorticoids in systemic sclerosis: weighing the benefits and risks – a systematic review. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013; 31(Suppl.76): 157–165.

89. Hudson M, Baron M, Tatibouet S, et al. Exposure to ACE inhibitors prior to the onset of scleroderma renal crisis-results from the International Scleroderma Renal Crisis Survey. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2014; 43: 666–72.

90. Penn H, Howie AJ, Kingdon EJ et al. Scleroderma renal crisis: patient characteristics and long-term outcomes. QJM 2007; 100: 485–94.

91. Walker KM, Pope J; participating members of the Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium, (Canadian Scleroderma Research Group . Treatment of systemic sclerosis complications: what to use when first-line treatment fails - consensus of systemic sclerosis experts. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2012; 42: 42–55.

92. Mann, J. F. et al. Renal outcomes with telmisartan, ramipril, or both, in people at high vascular risk (the ONTARGET study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 372: 547–53.

93. Lopez-Ovejero JA, Saal SD, D’Angelo WA, et al. Reversal of vascular and renal crises of scleroderma by oral angiotensin converting enzyme blockade. N Engl J Med 1979; 300: 1417–19.

94. Steen VD, Costantino JP, Shapiro AP, et al. Outcome of renal crisis in Systemic sclerosis: relation to availability of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 352–7.

95. Marie I. Gastrointestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis. Presse Med 2006; 35: 1952–65.

96. Korn JH. Scleroderma: a treatable disease. Cleve Clin J Med 2003;70: 954–8.

97. Denton CP, Clarke JO, Pandolfino JE, Harrison E, Murray C, Lal S. Gastrointestinal manifestation and management. In: Varga J, Denon CP, Wigley FM, Allanore Y, Kulana M eds. Scleroderma from pathogenesis to compherensive management. 2nd ed. Springer New York 2017: 423–61.

98. Kahan A, Bour B, Couturier D, Amor B, Menkes CJ. Nifedipine and esophageal dysfunction in progressive systemic sclerosis. A controlled manometric study. Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28: 490–5.

99. Jean F, Aubert A, Bloch F, Petite JP, Priollet P, Fiessinger JN, Husson JM, Billaud E. Effects of diltiazem versus nifedipine on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 1054–5.

100. Chiba N, De Gara CJ, Wilkinson JM, Hunt RH. Speed of healing and symptom relief in grade II to IV gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 1798–810.

101. Donnellan C, Sharma N, Preston C, et al. Medical treatments for the maintenance therapy of reflux oesophagitis and endoscopic negative reflux disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; (2): Cd003245.

102. Sigterman KE, van Pinxteren B, Bonis PA, et al. Short-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors, H2-receptor antagonists and prokinetics for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms and endoscopy negative reflux disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (5): Cd002095.

103. Fujiwara Y, Watanabe T, Muraki M, et al. Association between chronic use of proton pump inhibitors and small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth assessed using lactulose hydrogen breath tests. Hepatogastroenterology 2015; 62: 268–72.

104. Sarkar M, Hennessy S, Yang YX. Proton-pump inhibitor use and the risk for community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149: 391–8.

105. Kwok CS, Arthur AK, Anibueze CI, Singh S, Cavallazzi R, Loke YK. Risk of Clostridium difficile infection with acid suppressing drugs and antibiotics: meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 1011–9.

106. Wippf J, Allanore Y, Soussi F et al. Prevalence of Barret´s esophagus in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 2882–8.

107. García Rodríguez LA, Lagergren J, Lindblad M. Gastric acid suppression and risk of oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma: a nested case control study in the UK. Gut 2006; 55: 1538–44.

108. Chatterjee S, Dombi GW, Severson RK, Mayes MD. Risk of malignancy in scleroderma: a population-based cohort study. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 2415–24.

109. Ito T, Jensen RT. Association of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy with bone fractures and effects on absorption of calcium, vitamin B12, iron, and magnesium. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2010; 12: 448–57.

110. Schönhöfer PS. Safety of omeprazole and lansoprazole. Lancet 1994; 343: 1369–70.

111. Hendel L, Aggestrup S, Stentoft P. Long-term ranitidine in progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with gastroesophageal reflux. Scand J Gastroenterol 1986; 21: 799–805.

112. Petrokubi RJ, Jeffries GH. Cimetidine versus antacid in scleroderma with reflux esophagitis. A randomized double-blind controlled study. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 691–5.

113. Horowitz M, Maddern GJ, Maddox A, Wishart J, Chatterton BE, Shearman DJ. Effects of cisapride on gastric and esophageal emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis. Gastroenterology 1987; 93: 311–5.

114. Kahan A, Chaussade S, Gaudric M, et al. The effect of cisapride on gastro-oesophageal dysfunction in systemic sclerosis: a controlled manometric study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1991; 31: 683–7.

115. Wang SJ, Lan JL, Lan JL, Chen DY, Chen YH, Hsieh TY, Lin WY. Effects of cisapride on colonic transit in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Clin Rheumatol 2002; 21: 271–4.

116. Ramirez-Mata M, Ibañez G, Alarcon-Segovia D. Stimulatory effect of metoclopramide on the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter of patients with PSS. Arthritis Rheum 1977; 20: 30–4.

117. Johnson DA, Drane WE, Curran J, et al. Metoclopramide response in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Effect on esophageal and gastric motility abnormalities. Arch Intern Med 1987; 147: 1597–601.

118. Drane WE, Karvelis K, Johnson DA, Curran JJ, Silverman ED. Scintigraphic detection of metoclopramide esophageal stimulation in progressive systemic sclerosis. J Nucl Med 1987; 28: 810 – 5.

119. Sjogren RW. Gastrointestinal features of scleroderma. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1996; 8: 569–75.

120. Baron M, Hudson M, Steele R, Canadian scleroderma group. Malnutrition is comon in systemie sclerosis: results from the Canadian scleroderma research group database. J Rheumatol 2009; 36: 2737–43.

121. Bureš J, Cyrany J, Kohoutová D, Förstl M, Rejchrt S, Květina J, Voříšek V, Kopáčová M. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2010; 16: 2978–90.

122. Grace E, Shaw C, Whelan K et al. Review article: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence, clinical features, current and developing diagnostic tests, and treatment. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2013; 38: 674–88.

123. Scarpellini E, Gabrielli M, Luritano CE, Lupascu A, Merra G, Cammarota G, Cazzato IA, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A. High dosage rifaximin for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 781–6.

Labels
Dermatology & STDs Paediatric rheumatology Rheumatology
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account