Extrascleral Overgrowth of Malignant Choroidal Melanoma after Endoresection


Authors: A. Furdová;  P. Strmeň;  Z. Oláh;  Z. Svetlošáková;  P. Kusenda
Authors‘ workplace: Klinika oftalmológie Lekárskej fakulty Univerzity Komenského a Univerzitnej nemocnice, Nemocnica Ružinov, Bratislava, prednosta doc. MUDr. Krásnik Vladimír, PhD.
Published in: Čes. a slov. Oftal., 68, 2012, No. 4, p. 163-168
Category: Case Report

Overview

Objective:
Course of progression of the malignant choroidal melanoma diagnosed in T2 stage up to stage T4 with infiltration of the orbit. Case report 41 year old patient identified with intraocular malignant melanoma in the year 2005, documentation of disease progression and disease.

Access to treatment of intraocular malignant melanoma in stage T1 - T2 in the last decade has changed from a radical approach (enucleation) towards conservative treatment (brachytherapy, radiosurgical methods) or combined procedures (pars plana vitrectomy and endoresection followed by irradiation or addition of laser treatment). Currently, more than 60% of uveal melanoma is treated by brachytherapy or radiosurgical techniques and combined procedures.

Case report:
A 41 years old female patient with malignant melanoma in the choroid stage T2 since 2005. The volume of the tumor was 0.9 cm3, maximal elevation was over 12 mm. The patient refused a radical treatment (primary enucleation). Due to the stage of the melanoma she was recommended to stereotactic radiosurgery and combined therapy. She underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (TDmax – total dose of 35.0 Gy) in 2005. In 2006 pars plana vitrectomy with incomplete endoresection of the tumor and silicon oil instillation was done. In 2006–2007 appeared bleeding into the anterior chamber and she underwent three times an anterior chamber lavage in another department with subsequent development of secondary glaucoma. In January 2010 patient came to our department with the local finding of malignant melanoma in stage T4 with epibulbar growth process and the infiltration of the orbit. In the period have been found two solid liver metastases. Indicated exenteration of the orbit, histopathologically confirmed mixed cell type malignant melanoma.

Conclusion:
Progression of malignant melanoma after incomplete endoresection despite previous radiosurgical treatment can be very rapid in the course of the disease documented by ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. The patient subsequently passed to another workplace and underwent repeated lavage of the vitreous cavity. During endoresection is opened the package fibrous mesh gateway for the infiltration process in the cavity of the orbit and epibulbar space. In the case of residual melanoma after endoresection even though the tumor was irradiated before the procedure the melanoma might progress very fast into the surrounding tissues.

Key words:
malignant melanoma of the choroid, endoresection, stereotactic radiosurgery, exenteration of the orbit


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