End organ damage in arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk


Authors: J. Václavík
Published in: Kardiol Rev Int Med 2013, 15(4): 211-217
Category:

Overview

Arterial hypertension leads to a subclinical end organ damage, which increases patients‘ total cardiovascular risk. Hypertensive heart disease can be diagnosed as left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography or several electro­cardiographic indices. Arterial wall damage is assessed by carotid ultrasound by a measurement of intima-media thickness, as well as by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity or ankle-brachial index. Albumin­uria and estimated glomerular filtration rate are evaluated to diagnose hypertensive nephropathy. Cerebrovascular damage, including microangiopathic changes, is best diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. In case of confirmed subclinical organ damage, antihypertensive drug treatment should be initiated immediately and the type of drug chosen accordingly, usually including an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system.

Keywords:
hypertension – end organ damage – target organ damage – left ventricular hypertrophy – nephro­pathy – vasculopathy – cardiovascular risk


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Paediatric cardiology Cardiac surgery Cardiology
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