Urgent Management of the Complex Pelvic Fractures
S. Taller; R. Lukáš; J. Šrám; M. Křivohlávek
Traumacentrum Krajské nemocnice Liberec, primář MUDr. R. Lukáš
Rozhl. Chir., 2005, roč. 84, č. 2, s. 83-87.
Monothematic special - Original
Aim of study:
The term “complex pelvic fractures” is reserved for pelvic ring fractures associated with soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region and with haemodynamic instability of the patient. These fractures represent only 10% of all pelvic fractures; however, the morality rate exceeds 33%. This study describes the algorithm of the urgent treatment of serious pelvic ring injuries.
Urgent application of pelvic clip or external pelvic fixator is considered as a part of the reanimation period. If the external pelvic ring fixation is not followed by stabilization of patient’s circulation, the pelvis packing using the lower middle incision without opening of the abdominal cavity must be executed within a short time. The absence of the intraabdominal bleeding is essential. If the pelvis packing does not improve patient’s haemodynamic conditions, the bleeding should be controlled by angiography and embolization or by direct ligature of the internal iliac artery. In the most severe cases, hemipelvectomy would be carried out as the life-saving procedure.
Extreme blood loss associated with complex pelvic ring fractures is possible due to enlarged volume of the injured pelvis. This is caused by a gap within the symphysis or in the region of the pubic rami and by a shift in the posterior pelvic segment. In such situation, waiting for the self-packing of pelvis by haematoma can be dangerous. In case of parapelvic compartments disruption, the effect of the self-packing would not come at all. The management of the pelvic ring fractures should be completed by a surgical procedure, because non-surgical treatment is mostly disappointing. The best results can be achieved only by the early operation of the anterior and posterior pelvic segment aimed at the realignment of pelvic ring and proper anatomical relations.
Complex pelvic ring fractures require the aggressive approach. The basic reanimation procedures include application of the pelvic clip. This is the only way how to control extensive haemorrhage associated with the pelvic ring fractures and how to improve patient’s haemodynamic conditions. The final surgical treatment of the pelvis fractures should be completed early after the injury. This is within the competence of specialized centres.
unstable pelvic ring fractures – treatment algorithm – packing