Functional systems of the human brain


Authors: F. Koukolík
Authors‘ workplace: Oddělení patologie a molekulární medicíny Národní referenční laboratoř prionových chorob ;  Fakultní Thomayerova nemocnice s poliklinikou, Praha ;  Primář: MUDr. František Koukolík, DrSc.
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2007; 87(12): 699-704
Category: Reviews

Overview

Cognitive neuroscience investigates the cognitive functions of human and animal brains. Affective neuroscience examines the brain’s emotivity. Contemporary neuroscience influences research into artificial intelligence, robotics, psychology, linguistics, economy, law and philosophy. The basic concept of both of these neuroscientific branches is the functional brain system. The basic properties of the functional brain systems are organization, integration, hierarchy, anatomical relationship to demarcated brain regions and concurrently distributed processing of information. The advancement of cognitive and affective neuroscience is reliant upon up-to-date imaging methods. The development of neuronal networks of the human brain is ontogenetic and phylogenetic. Neuronal networks operate „down-top“, „top-down“ and „laterally“. Extrinsic neuronal networks react to signals from the external world. Intrinsic neuronal networks react to signals from other networks. The brain is organized in sets of dynamic networks whose functions are frequently antagonistic. The architecture and functions of the neuronal networks of human and animal brains may be affected by unfavourable influence, e.g.deprivation.

Key words:
cognitive and affective neuroscience, functional brain system, neuronal network.


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