Guidelines for the administration of biological therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: 2nd edition


Authors: M. Bortlík 1;  D. Ďuricová;  P. Kohout;  M. Konečný;  J. Koželuhová;  A. Novotný;  V. Zbořil;  L. Prokopová;  T. Douda;  J. Stehlík;  O. Shonová;  K. Mareš;  L. Hrdlička;  P. Matějková;  Z. Šerclová;  L. Nedbalová;  M. Tomanová;  M. Liberda;  J. Bronský;  K. Mitrová;  P. Drastich;  M. Lukáš Za Pracovní Skupinu Ibd Čgs
Authors‘ workplace: Klinické a výzkumné centrum pro střevní záněty, ISCARE Lighthouse a Interní klinika 1. LF UK a ÚVN Praha Pracoviště spoluautorů jsou uvedena na webové stránce časopisu www. csgh. info. 1
Published in: Gastroent Hepatol 2012; 66(1): 12-22
Category: IBD: Guidelines


Sources

1. Lukáš M, Ďuricová D, Bortlík M et al. Doporučení pro podávání biologické terapie u idopatických střevních zánětů. Čes a Slov Gastroent a Hepatol 2008; 62: 285–291.

2. D'Haens GR, Panaccione R, Higgins PD et al. The London Position Statement of the World Congress of Gastroenterology on Biological Therapy for IBD with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization: when to start, when to stop, which drug to choose, and how to predict response? Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106(2): 199–212.

3. Dignass A, Van AG, Lindsay JO et al. The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: Current management. J Crohns Colitis 2010; 4(1): 28–62.

4. Hanauer SB, Feagan BG, Lichtenstein GR et al. Maintenance infliximab for Crohn's disease: the ACCENT I randomised trial. Lancet 2002; 359(9317): 1541–1549.

5. Mowat C, Cole A, Windsor A et al. Guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut 2011; 60(5): 571–607.

6. Present DH, Rutgeerts P, Targan S et al. Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340(18): 1398–1405.

7. Sands BE, Anderson FH, Bernstein CN et al. Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 350(9): 876–885.

8. Parsi MA, Lashner BA, Achkar JP et al. Type of fistula determines response to infliximab in patients with fistulous Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99(3): 445–449.

9. D'Haens G, Baert F, Van AG et al. Early combined immunosuppression or conventional management in patients with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease: an open randomised trial. Lancet 2008; 371(9613): 660–667.

10. Van AG, Dignass A, Reinisch W et al. The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: Special situations. J Crohns Colitis 2010; 4(1): 63–101.

11. Danese S, Colombel JF, Reinisch W et al. Review article: infliximab for Crohn's disease treatment--shifting therapeutic strategies after 10 years of clinical experience. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 33(8): 857–869.

12. Regueiro M, Schraut W, Baidoo L et al. Infliximab prevents Crohn's disease recurrence after ileal resection. Gastroenterology 2009; 136(2): 441–450.

13. Sorrentino D, Paviotti A, Terrosu G et al. Low-dose maintenance therapy with infliximab prevents postsurgical recurrence of Crohn's disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8(7): 591–599.

14. Rutgeerts P, Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG et al. Infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353(23): 2462–2476.

15. Lukáš M. Biologická léčba u nemocných s ulcerózní kolitidou. Postgraduální medicína 2011; 13: 993–997.

16. Jarnerot G, Hertervig E, Friis-Liby I et al. Infliximab as rescue therapy in severe to moderately severe ulcerative colitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology 2005; 128(7): 1805–1811.

17. Travis SP, Stange EF, Lemann M et al. European evidence-based Consensus on the management of ulcerative colitis: Current management. J Crohns Colitis 2008; 2(1): 24–62.

18. Laharie D, Bourreille A, Branche J et al. Cyclosporin Versus Infliximab in Severe Ulcerative Colitis Refractory to Intravenous Steroids: A Randomized Trial. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: P S-112.

19. Barrie A, Requeiro M. Biologic therapy in the management of extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012; 13(11): 1424–1429.

20. Brooklyn TN, Dunnill MG, Shetty A et al. Infliximab for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Gut 2006; 55(4): 505–509.

21. Fries W, Giofre MR, Catanoso M et al. Treatment of acute uveitis associated with Crohn's disease and sacroileitis with infliximab. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97(2): 499–500.

22. Herfarth H, Obermeier F, Andus T et al. Improvement of arthritis and arthralgia after treatment with infliximab (Remicade) in a German prospective, open-label, multicenter trial in refractory Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97(10): 2688–2690.

23. Braun J, Brandt J, Listing J et al. Treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis with infliximab: a randomised controlled multicentre trial. Lancet 2002; 359(9313): 1187–1193.

24. Hommes DW, Erkelens W, Ponsioen C et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of infliximab in primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2008; 42(5): 522–526.

25. Sandborn WJ, Hanauer SB. Infliximab in the treatment of Crohn's disease: a user's guide for clinicians. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97(12): 2962–2972.

26. Keane J, Gershon S, Wise RP et al. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor alpha-neutralizing agent. N Engl J Med 2001; 345(15): 1098–1104.

27. Rahier J, Ben-Horin S, Chowers Y et al. European evidence-based Consensus on the prevention, diagnosis and managment of opportunistic infections in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis 2009; 3(2): 47–91.

28. Stehlík J, Mareš K, Lukáš M et al. Doporučení pro vakcinaci nemocných s Crohnovou chorobou a ulcerózní kolitidou na imunosupresivní a biologické léčbě. Čes a Slov Gastroent a Hepatol 2010; 64: 40–48.

29. Nathan DM, Angus PW, Gibson PR. Hepatitis B and C virus infections and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy: guidelines for clinical approach. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 21(9): 1366–1371.

30. Seiderer J, Goke B, Ochsenkuhn T. Safety aspects of infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease patients. A retrospective cohort study in 100 patients of a German University Hospital. Digestion 2004; 70(1): 3–9.

31. Mohan N, Edwards ET, Cupps TR et al. Demyelination occurring during anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy for inflammatory arthritides. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44(12): 2862–2869.

32. Thomas CW Jr., Weinshenker BG, Sandborn WJ. Demyelination during anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy with infliximab for Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2004; 10(1): 28–31.

33. Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zeron P, Munoz S et al. Autoimmune diseases induced by TNF-targeted therapies: analysis of 233 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 2007; 86(4): 242–251.

34. Chung ES, Packer M, Lo KH et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial of infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure: results of the anti-TNF Therapy Against Congestive Heart Failure (ATTACH) trial. Circulation 2003; 107(25): 3133–3140.

35. Clark M, Colombel JF, Feagan BC et al. American gastroenterological association consensus development conference on the use of biologics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, June 21-23, 2006. Gastroenterology 2007; 133(1): 312–339.

36. Van AG, Lewis JD, Lichtenstein GR et al. The London position statement of the World Congress of Gastroenterology on Biological Therapy for IBD with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation: safety. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106(9): 1594–1602.

37. Goodhand JR, Alazawi W, Rampton DS. Systematic review: Clostridium difficile and inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 33(4): 428–441.

38. Sinh P, Barrett TA, Yun L. Clostridium difficile Infection and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2011; 2011: 136064.

39. Issa M, Vijayapal A, Graham MB et al. Impact of Clostridium difficile on inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5(3): 345–351.

40. Allez M, Vermeire S, Mozziconacci N et al. The efficacy and safety of a third anti-TNF monoclonal antibody in Crohn's disease after failure of two other anti-TNF antibodies. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31(1): 92–101.

41. Lofberg R, Louis EV, Reinisch W et al. Adalimumab produces clinical remission and reduces extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease: Results from CARE. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012; 18(1): 1–9.

42. Van AG, Vermeire S, Ballet V et al. Switch to adalimumab in patients with Crohn's disease controlled by maintenance infliximab: prospective randomised SWITCH trial. Gut 2012; 61(2): 229–234.

43. Hommes DW, Oldenburg B, van Bodegraven AA et al. Guidelines for treatment with infliximab for Crohn's disease. Neth J Med 2006; 64(7): 219–229.

44. Louis E, Mary JY, Vernier-Massouille G et al. Maintenance of remission among patients with Crohn's disease on antimetabolite therapy after infliximab therapy is stopped. Gastroenterology 2012; 142(1): 63–70.

45. Rutgeerts P, Feagan BG, Lichtenstein GR et al. Comparison of scheduled and episodic treatment strategies of infliximab in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2004; 126(2): 402–413.

46. Gustavsson E, Janerot G, Hetevig E. Hospitalized steroid refractory ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab: a 2 year follow-up. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: A146–147.

47. Billioud V, Sandborn WJ, Peyrin-Biroulet L. Loss of response and need for adalimumab dose intensification in Crohn's disease: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106(4): 674–684.

48. Gisbert JP, Panes J. Loss of response and requirement of infliximab dose intensification in Crohn's disease: a review. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104(3): 760–767.

49. Yanai H, Hanauer SB. Assessing Response and Loss of Response to Biological Therapies in IBD. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106(4): 685–698.

50. Sandborn WJ, Rutgeerts P, Enns R et al. Adalimumab induction therapy for Crohn disease previously treated with infliximab: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146(12): 829–838.

51. Lukáš M. Jak postupovat při ztrátě odpovědi na biologickou léčbu u nemocných s idopatickými střevními záněty? Gastroent Hepatol 2011; 65(1): 36–39.

52. Maser EA, Villela R, Silverberg MS et al. Association of trough serum infliximab to clinical outcome after scheduled maintenance treatment for Crohn's disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4(10):  1248–1254.

53. Seow CH, Newman A, Irwin SP et al. Trough serum infliximab: a predictive factor of clinical outcome for infliximab treatment in acute ulcerative colitis. Gut 2010; 59(1): 49–54.

54. Duricova D, Malickova K, Bortlik M et al. Predictors of Sustained Response to Infliximab in Patients with Crohn´s Disease: A Single Cohort Study. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: P S-593.

55. Baert F, Noman M, Vermeire S et al. Influence of immunogenicity on the long-term efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(7): 601–608.

56. Cassinotti A, Travis S. Incidence and clinical significance of immunogenicity to infliximab in Crohn's disease: a critical systematic review. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009; 15(8): 1264–1275.

57. Vermeire S, Noman M, Van AG et al. Effectiveness of concomitant immunosuppressive therapy in suppressing the formation of antibodies to infliximab in Crohn's disease. Gut 2007; 56(9): 1226–1231.

58. Afif W, Loftus EV Jr., Faubion WA et al. Clinical utility of measuring infliximab and human anti-chimeric antibody concentrations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105(5): 1133–1139.

59. Colombel JF, Sandborn WJ, Reinisch W et al. Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 2010; 362(15): 1383–1395.

60. Panaccione R, Ghosh S, Middleton S et al. Infliximab, Azathioprine, or Infliximab + Azathioprine for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis: The UC Success Trial. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: S-134.

61. Sokol H, Seksik P, Carrat F et al. Usefulness of co-treatment with immunomodulators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with scheduled infliximab maintenance therapy. Gut 2010; 59(10): 1363–1368.

62. Van AG, Magdelaine-Beuzelin C, D'Haens G et al. Withdrawal of immunosuppression in Crohn's disease treated with scheduled infliximab maintenance: a randomized trial. Gastroenterology 2008; 134(7): 1861–1868.

63. Toruner M, Loftus EV Jr., Harmsen WS et al. Risk factors for opportunistic infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2008; 134(4): 929–936.

64. Lichtenstein GR, Diamond RH, Wagner CL et al. Clinical trial: benefits and risks of immunomodulators and maintenance infliximab for IBD-subgroup analyses across four randomized trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 30(3): 210–226.

65. Parsi MA, Achkar JP, Richardson S et al. Predictors of response to infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2002; 123(3): 707–713.

66. Vermeire S, Louis E, Carbonez A et al. Demographic and clinical parameters influencing the short-term outcome of anti-tumor necrosis factor (infliximab) treatment in Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97(9): 2357–2363.

67. Hanauer SB, Sandborn WJ, Rutgeerts P et al. Human anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody (adalimumab) in Crohn's disease: the CLASSIC-I trial. Gastroenterology 2006; 130(2): 323–333.

68. Colombel JF, Sandborn WJ, Rutgeerts P et al. Adalimumab for maintenance of clinical response and remission in patients with Crohn's disease: the CHARM trial. Gastroenterology 2007; 132(1): 52–65.

69. Johnson DL, Jones KL, Chambers CD et al. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women Exposed to Adalimumab: the OTIS Autoimmune Diseases in Pregnancy Project. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: A-27.

70. Katz JA, Antoni C, Keenan GF et al. Outcome of pregnancy in women receiving infliximab for the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99(12): 2385–2392.

71. Mahadevan U, Kane S, Sandborn WJ et al. Intentional infliximab use during pregnancy for induction or maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 21(6): 733–738.

72. Mahadevan U, Martin CF, Sandler RS et al. One Year Newborn Outcomes Among Offspring of Women With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The PIANO Registry. Gastroenterology 2010; 138: P S–106.

73. Vesga L, Terdiman JP, Mahadevan U. Adalimumab use in pregnancy. Gut 2005; 54(6): 890.

74. Mahadevan U, Kane SV, Church JA et al. The Effect of Maternal Peripartum Infliximab Use On Neonatal Immune Response. Gastroenterology 2008; 138: A-69.

75. Vasiliauskas EA, Church JA, Silverman N et al. Case report: evidence for transplacental transfer of maternally administered infliximab to the newborn. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4(10): 1255–1258.

76. Schnitzler F, Fidder H, Ferrante M et al. Outcome of pregnancy in women with inflammatory bowel disease treated with antitumor necrosis factor therapy. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17(9): 1846–1854.

77. Mahadevan U, Miller J, Wolf D. Adalimumab Levels Detected in Cord Blood and Infants Exposed in Utero. Gastroenterology 2011; 138: P S-106.

78. Kane S, Ford J, Cohen R et al. Absence of infliximab in infants and breast milk from nursing mothers receiving therapy for Crohn's disease before and after delivery. J Clin Gastroenterol 2009; 43(7): 613–616.

79. Colombel JF, Loftus EV Jr., Tremaine WJ et al. Early postoperative complications are not increased in patients with Crohn's disease treated perioperatively with infliximab or immunosuppressive therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99(5): 878–883.

80. Nasir BS, Dozois EJ, Cima RR et al. Perioperative anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy does not increase the rate of early postoperative complications in Crohn's disease. J Gastrointest Surg 2010; 14(12): 1859–1865.

81. Mor IJ, Vogel JD, da Luz MA et al. Infliximab in ulcerative colitis is associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications after restorative proctocolectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51(8): 1202–1207.

82. Selvasekar CR, Cima RR, Larson DW et al. Effect of infliximab on short-term complications in patients undergoing operation for chronic ulcerative colitis. J Am Coll Surg 2007; 204(5): 956–962.

83. Yang Z, Wu Q, Wu K et al. Meta-analysis: pre-operative infliximab treatment and short-term post-operative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31(4): 486–492.

84. Hurst RD, Molinari M, Chung TP et al. Prospective study of the incidence, timing and treatment of pouchitis in 104 consecutive patients after restorative proctocolectomy. Arch Surg 1996; 131(5): 497–500.

85. Penna C, Dozois R, Tremaine W et al. Pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis occurs with increased frequency in patients with associated primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut 1996; 38(2): 234–239.

86. Stahlberg D, Gullberg K, Liljeqvist L et al. Pouchitis following pelvic pouch operation for ulcerative colitis. Incidence, cumulative risk, and risk factors. Dis Colon Rectum 1996; 39(9): 1012–1018.

87. Pardi DS, D'Haens G, Shen B et al. Clinical guidelines for the management of pouchitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009; 15(9): 1424–1431.

88. Acosta MB, Garcia-Bosch O, Souto R et al. Efficacy of infliximab rescue therapy in patients with chronic refractory pouchitis: A multicenter study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011 [Epub ahead of print].

89. Calabrese C, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F et al. Short-term treatment with infliximab in chronic refractory pouchitis and ileitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27(9): 759–764.

90. Ferrante M, D'Haens G, Dewit O et al. Efficacy of infliximab in refractory pouchitis and Crohn's disease-related complications of the pouch: a Belgian case series. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010; 16(2): 243–249.

91. Viget N, Vernier-Massouille G, Salmon-Ceron D et al. Opportunistic infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: prevention and diagnosis. Gut 2008; 57(4): 549–558.

92. Hyams J, Crandall W, Kugathasan S et al. Induction and maintenance infliximab therapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease in children. Gastroenterology 2007; 132(3): 863–873.

93. Hyams J, Damaraju L, Blank M et al. Induction and Maintenance Therapy With Infliximab for Children With Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011 [Epub ahead of print].

94. Turner D, Travis SP, Griffiths AM et al. Consensus for managing acute severe ulcerative colitis in children: a systematic review and joint statement from ECCO, ESPGHAN, and the Porto IBD Working Group of ESPGHAN. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106(4): 574–588.

95. de Riddler L, Rings EH, Damen GM et al. Infliximab dependency in pediatric Crohn's disease: long-term follow-up of an unselected cohort. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008; 14(3): 353–358.

96. Duricova D, Pedersen N, Lenicek M et al. Infliximab dependency in children with Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29(7): 792–799.

97. Wewer V, Riis L, Vind I et al. Infliximab dependency in a national cohort of children with Crohn's disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006; 42(1): 40–45.

98. Hyams J, Griffiths AM, Markowitz J et al. Induction and maintenance adalimumab therapy for the treatment of moderate to severe Crohn´s disease in children. J Crohn Colitis 2011; 5: S5–7.

99. Hanauer SB, Wagner CL, Bala M et al. Incidence and importance of antibody responses to infliximab after maintenance or episodic treatment in Crohn's disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2(7): 542–553.

100. Schnitzler F, Fidder H, Ferrante M et al. Long-term outcome of treatment with infliximab in 614 patients with Crohn's disease: results from a single-centre cohort. Gut 2009; 58(4): 492–500.

101. Steenholdt C, Svenson M, Bendtzen K et al. Severe infusion reactions to infliximab: aetiology, immunogenicity and risk factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 34(1): 51–58.

102. Fidder H, Schnitzler F, Ferrante M et al. Long-term safety of infliximab for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a single-centre cohort study. Gut 2009; 58(4): 501–508.

103. Lichtenstein GR, Feagan BG, Cohen RD et al. Serious infections and mortality in association with therapies for Crohn's disease: TREAT registry. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4(5): 621–630.

104. Peyrin-Biroulet L, Deltenre P, de SN et al. Efficacy and safety of tumor necrosis factor antagonists in Crohn's disease: meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 6(6): 644–653.

105. Schneeweiss S, Korzenik J, Solomon DH et al. Infliximab and other immunomodulating drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and the risk of serious bacterial infections. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 30(3): 253–264.

106. Duricova D, Bortlik M, Komarek V et al. Skin Complications During Therapy With Anti-TNFa Preparations: Experience of a Single Centre. Gastroenterology 2010; 138: P S-763.

107. Fiorino G, Allez M, Malesci A et al. Review article: anti TNF-alpha induced psoriasis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29(9): 921–927.

108. Rahier JF, Buche S, Peyrin-Biroulet L et al. Severe skin lesions cause patients with inflammatory bowel disease to discontinue anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8(12): 1048–1055.

109. Beigel F, Schnitzler F, Paul LR et al. Formation of antinuclear and double-strand DNA antibodies and frequency of lupus-like syndrome in anti-TNF-alpha antibody-treated patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17(1): 91–98.

110. Vermeire S, Noman M, Van AG et al. Autoimmunity associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment in Crohn's disease: a prospective cohort study. Gastroenterology 2003; 125(1): 32–39.

111. Subramanian S, Yajnik V, Sands BE et al. Characterization of patients with infliximab-induced lupus erythematosus and outcomes after retreatment with a second anti-TNF agent. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17(1): 99–104.

112. Caspersen S, Elkjaer M, Riis L et al. Infliximab for inflammatory bowel disease in Denmark 1999-2005: clinical outcome and follow-up evaluation of malignancy and mortality. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 6(11): 1212–1217.

113. Siegel CA, Marden SM, Persing SM et al. Risk of lymphoma associated with combination anti-tumor necrosis factor and immunomodulator therapy for the treatment of Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 7(8): 874–881.

114. Mackey AC, Green L, Leptak C et al. Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma associated with infliximab use in young patients treated for inflammatory bowel disease: update. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2009; 48(3): 386–388.

115. Rosh JR, Gross T, Mamula P et al. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in adolescents and young adults with Crohn's disease: a cautionary tale? Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13(8): 1024–1030.

116. Askling J, Fahrbach K, Nordstrom B et al. Cancer risk with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) inhibitors: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab using patient level data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2011; 20(2): 119–130.

Labels
Paediatric gastroenterology Gastroenterology and hepatology Surgery

Article was published in

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Issue 1

2012 Issue 1

Most read in this issue

This topic is also in:


Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account