Diabetic retinopathy 1

Authors: Mária Molnárová
Authors‘ workplace: II. Očná klinika, FNsP F. D. Roosevelta, Banská Bystrica
Published in: Forum Diab 2012; 1(1): 17-23


Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and one of the most common causes of blindness in working age. The emergence and development of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME) are influenced by systemic and ocular risk factors. The Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group simplified the classification of DR and DME to facilitate early diagnosis of the disease, to improve communication between the ophthalmologist, diabetologist and general practitioner, which allows for early indication of effective up-to-date treatment of DR and DME.

Key words:
diabetic retinopathy – diabetes mellitus – diabetic macular edema – microvascular complication


1. National diabetes fact sheet 2007. Dostupné z: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2007.pdf. Accessed November 30.

2. Trautner C, Icks A, Haastert B et al. Incidence of Blindness in relation to diabetes. Diabetes Care 1997; 20(7): 1147–1153.

3. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE. The epidemiology of ocular problems in diabetes mellitus. In: Feman SS (Ed). Ocular Problems in Diabetes mellitus. St. Louis: CV Mosby Co 1989: 255–264.

4. Saaddine JB, Honeycutt AA, Narayan KM et al. Projection of diabetic retinopathy and other major eye diseases among people with diabetes mellitus. United States 2005–2050. Arch Ophthalmol 2008; 126(12): 1740–1747.

5. Browning DJ. Diabetic Retinopathy. Springer: New York – Dordrecht – Heidelberg – London 2010. ISBN 978–0-387–85899–9.

6. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE et al. Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. III. Prevalence and risk of retinopathy when age at diagnosis is 30 or more years. Arch Ophthalmol 1984; 102(4): 527–532.

7. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial research group. Progression of retinopathy with intensive versus conventional treatment in the diabetes control and complication trial. Ophthalmology 1995; 102(4): 647–661.

8. Brown JB, Pedula KI, Summers KH. Diabetic retinopathy. Contemporary prevalence in a well-controlled population. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(9): 2637–2642.

9. Do DV, Shah SM, Sung JU et al. Persistent diabetic macular edema is associated with elevated hemoglobin A1c. Am J Ophthalmol 2005; 139(4): 620–623.

10. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE et al. The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. XV. The long term incidence of macular edema. Ophthalmology 1995; 102(1): 7–16.

11. UK Prospective Diabetic Study Group. Risk of progression of retinopathy and vision loss related to tight blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122(11): 1631–1640.

12. Cusick M, Chev EY, Chan CC et al. III. Histopathology and regression of retinal hard exudates in diabetic retinopathy after reduction of serum lipid levels. Ophthalmology 2003; 110(11): 2126–2133.

13. Misra A, Vikram NK, Kumar A. Diabetic maculopathy and lipid-lowering therapy. Eye 2004; 18(1): 107–108.

14. Klein BEK, Moss SE, Klein R, Surawitz TS. The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy XIII. Relationship of serum cholesterol to retinopathy and hard exudate. Ophthalmology 1991; 98(8): 1261–1265.

15. Chew EY, Klein ML, Ferris FL et al. Association of elevated serum lipid levels with retinal hard exsudate in diabetic retinopathy – early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) report 22. Arch Ophthalmol 1996; 114(9): 1079–1084.

16. Kremser BG, Falk M, Kieselbach GF. Influence of lipid fractions on the course of diabetic macular edema after photocoagulation. Ophthalmology 1995; 209(2): 60–63.

17. Herman HD, Friedman EA. Partial absorption of hard exudates in patients with diabetic end-stage renal disease and severe anemia after treatment with erythropoetin. Retina 1994; 14(1): 1–5.

18. Ciardella AP. Partial resolution of diabetic macular edema after systemic treatment with furosemide. Br J Ophthalmol 2004; 88(9): 1224–1225.

19. Ramsay RC, Knobloch WH, Barbosa JJ et al. The visual status of diabetic patients. Am J Ophthalmol 1979; 87(3): 305–310.

20. Sinclair S, Nesler C, Foxman B et al. Macular edema and pregnancy in insulin-dependent diabetes. Am J Ophthalmol 1984; 97(2): 154–167.

21. Meyer-Schwickerath G, Schott K. Diabetic retinopathy and photocoagulation. Am J Ophthalmol 1968; 66(4): 597–603.

22. Wilkinson CP, Ferris FL 3rd, Klein RE et al. Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema severity scales. Ophthalmology 2003; 110(9): 1677–1682.

23. Lee CM, Olk RJ. Modified grid laser photocoagulation for diffuse diabetic macular edema. Long term visual results. Ophthalmology 1991; 98(10): 1594–1602.

24. Jonas JB, Kreissig I, Soefker A et al. Intravitreal injection of triamcinolone for diffuse diabetic macular edema. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121(1): 57–61.

25. Cunningham MA, Edekman JL, Kaushal S. Intravitreal steroids for macular edema: the past, the present and the future. Surv Ophthalmol 2008; 53(2): 139–140.

26. Arevalo JF, Fromow-Guerra J, Quitroz-Mercado H et al. Primary intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema: results from the Pan American Collaborative Retina Study Group at s6-month follow-up. Ophthalmology 2007; 114(4): 743–750.

27. Patel JI, Hykin PG, Schydt M et al. Pars plana vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema: OCT and functional correlations. Eye 2006; 20(6): 674–680.

Diabetology Endocrinology Internal medicine
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.


Don‘t have an account?  Create new account