Human alveolar echinococcosis and an overview of the occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis in animals in the Czech Republic


Authors: L. Kolářová 1,2;  J. Matějů 1,2;  L. Hozáková 3;  F. Stejskal 2,4,5;  J. Hrdý 2;  H. Kolářová 6;  M. Leissová 1,2;  V. Skála 1,2;  P. Dundr 6
Authors‘ workplace: Národní referenční laboratoř pro tkáňové helmintózy Všeobecné fakultní nemocnice v Praze 1;  Ústav imunologie a mikrobiologie, 1. lékařská fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Praha 2;  Klinika infekčního lékařství, Fakultní nemocnice Ostrava 3;  Klinika infekčních nemocí, 2. lékařská fakulta Univerzity Karlovy a Nemocnice Na Bulovce, Praha 4;  Infekční oddělení, Krajská nemocnice Liberec 5;  Klinika dětského a dorostového lékařství, 1. lékařská fakulta Univerzity Karlovy a Všeobecná fakultní nemocnice v Praze 6;  Ústav patolologie, 1. lékařská fakulta Univerzity Karlovy a Všeobecná fakultní nemocnice v Praze 7
Published in: Epidemiol. Mikrobiol. Imunol. 66, 2017, č. 4, s. 163-172
Category: Original Papers

Overview

Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. In the Czech Republic, screening tests to detect the specific infectious agent have been performed since 1998. The first AE cases were diagnosed in 2007, and until 2014, a total of 21 diseases were recorded. In accordance with radiological, histological, and/or PCR data, serological examinations of 699 individuals helped to reveal 15 additional AE cases in the period of 2015–2016. From the cumulative data for 1998–2016, it appears that of 2,695 patients examined, 36 (18 men and 18 women) were diagnosed with AE. Their age at diagnosis ranged from 20 to 82 years and was lower for women (mean 43.7, median 39.5) than for men (50.9 and 57.5, respectively), but the difference was not statistically significant. In the period of 2007–2016, the mean annual incidence rate was 0.034 cases/100 000 population. Our study indicates an ongoing increase in AE cases. The disease can be autochthonous in nature, as evidenced not only by some case history data but also by the detection of the larval stages in wild boar (Sus scrofa). AE risk to humans in the Czech Republic is discussed in the context of the known data on the presence of various parasite developmental stages in animals.

Keywords:
alveolar echinococcosis – Echinococcus multilocularis – incidence – Czech Republic


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