History, present problems and challenges in prevention of nosocomial infections


Authors: M. Schejbalová;  V. Bencko
Authors‘ workplace: Univerzita Karlova v Praze, 1. LF a VFN, Ústav hygieny a epidemiologie ;  Přednosta: prof. MUDr. Vladimír Bencko, DrSc.
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2008; 88(5): 293-295
Category: In diferent

Overview

It was in 1847 that Ignaz F. Semmelweis ordered the staff of the maternity hospital where he worked to wash their hands between examining patients. A lot has changed in the more than 160 since. The discovery and development of antiseptics, hygienic scrub, use of gloves, improvement and perfection of decontamination processes (disinfection, sterilization) has enabled the introduction and improvement of an aseptic method of nursing, which has had a positive impact on the incidence and spectrum of nosocomial infections. The discovery of antibiotics, immunization programs and other progresses in medicine and other branches of science has led to an extended life-expectancy and a fundamental change in morbidity structure in advanced industrialized world regions. Many infectious diseases have been almost eradicated or their occurrence drastically reduced. It seems that man has beaten infection. But the „golden age” of antibiotics has been relatively quickly replaced by the era of resistance; and nowadays we wrestle not only with novel infectious agents but especially with an increasing number of bacterial strains resistant to a considerable part of the antibiotic spectrum. At the forefront of contemporary problems in hospital hygiene – the prevention of nosocomial infection - is the unrestrained growth in the participation of resistant strains on the incidence of nosocomial infections.

Key words:
I. F. Semmelweis, A. Fleming, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, nosocomial infection, MRSA, antibiotic spectrum.


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