Pregnant women alloimmunisation of non-RhD erythrocyte antigens: review article


Authors: M. Pětroš 1;  M. Lubušký 2,3;  O. Šimetka 1;  M. Procházka 2,3
Authors‘ workplace: Porodnicko-gynekologická klinika, Fakultní nemocnice Ostrava, přednosta MUDr. O. Šimetka 1;  Porodnicko-gynekologická klinika, Fakultní nemocnice Olomouc, přednosta doc. MUDr. R. Pilka, Ph. D. 2;  Ústav lékařské genetiky a fetální medicíny, Fakultní nemocnice Olomouc, přednosta prof. MUDr. J. Šantavý, CSc. 3
Published in: Čes. Gynek.2010, 75, č. 4 s. 325-333

Overview

Cíl studie:
Cílem tohoto přehledu je dát ucelený pohled na aloimunizaci non-RhD erytrocytárními antigeny.

Typ studie:
Přehledová práce.

Název a sídlo pracoviště:
Porodnicko-gynekologická klinika, Fakultní nemocnice Ostrava. Porodnicko-gynekologická klinika, Fakultní nemocnice Olomouc, Ústav lékařské genetiky a fetální medicíny, Fakultní nemocnice Olomouc.

Předmět a metodika studie:
Na základě analýzy publikací vyhledaných v databázích PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid a Proquest zaměřeného na jednotlivé non–RhD aloprotilátky byl sestaven současný přehled znalostí.

Závěr:
Aloimunizace těhotných žen non-RhD erytrocytárními antigeny nabývá na důležitosti v souvislosti s relativním vzestupem jejich výskytu. Profylaxe zde není možná. Nicméně i tyto erytrocytární antigeny mohou vyvolat u matky protilátkovou odpověď, která může vést k rozvoji hemolytické nemoci plodu i novorozence. V článku jsou diskutovány nejčastější typy non-RhD aloprotilátek.

Klíčová slova:
aloimunizace, non-RhD protilátky, prenatální diagnostika.


Sources

1. Ahaded, A., Brossard, Y., Debbia, M., Lambin, P. Quantitative determination of anti-K (KEL1) IgG and IgG subclasses in the serum of severely alloimmunized pregnant women by ELISA. Transfusion 2000, 40, p. 1239–1245.

2. Alves de Lima, LM., Berthier, ME., Sad, WE., et al. Characterization of an anti-Dia antibody causing hemolytic disease in a newborn infant. Transfusion 1982, 22, p. 246–247.

3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Management of alloimmunization during pregnancy. Washington (DC): American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG); 2006 Aug. 8 p. (ACOG practice bulletin; no. 75).

4. Babinszki, A., Berkowitz RL. Haemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-c, anti-E and anti-Fya antibodies: report of five cases. Prenat Diagn 1999, 19, p. 533–536.

5. Bowell, PJ., Brown, SE., Dike AE., Inskip, MJ. The significance of anti-c alloimmunization in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1986, 93, 10, p. 1044-1048.

6. Bowman, JM., Harman, FA., Manning, CR., Pollock, JM. Erythroblastosis fetalis produced by anti-k. Vox Sang 1989, 56, 3, 187-189. Erratum in: Vox Sang 1990, 58, 2, p. 139.

7. Bowman, JM., Pollock, JM., Manning, FA., et al. Maternal Kell blood group alloimmunization. Obstet Gynecol 1992, 79, 2, p. 239-244.

8. Bowman, JM., Pollock, JM., Manning, FA., Harman, CR. Severe anti-C hemolytic disease of the newborn. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992, 166, 4, p. 1239-1243.

9. Broadberry, RE., Lin, M. The incidence and significance of anti-”Mia” in Taiwan. Transfusion 1994, 34, p. 349–352.

10. Bryant, LB. A case of anti-cellano (k) with review of the present status of the Kell blood group system. Bull South Central Assoc Blood Banks 1965, 8, p. 4-13.

11. Calda, P. Příčiny, prevence a diagnostika aloimunizace v těhotenství. Actual Gyn 2009, 1, s. 55-60.

12. Collinet, P., Subtil, D., Puech, F., Vaast, P. Successful treatment of extremely severe fetal anemia due to Kell alloimmunization. Obstet Gynecol 2002, 100, p. 1102–1105.

13. Corfield, VA., Moolman, JC., Martell, R., Brink, PA. Polymerase chain reaction-based detection of MN blood group-specific sequences in the human genome. Transfusion 1993, 33, 2, p. 119-124.

14. Costamagna, L., Barbarini, M., Viarengo, GL., et al. A case of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Kpa. Immunohematol 1997, 13, p. 61–62.

15. Dacus, JV., Spinnato, JA. Severe erythroblastosis fetalis secondary to anti-Kpb sensitization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984, 150, p. 888–889.

16. Daniels, G. Human Blood Groups. Oxford: Blackwell Science1995.

17. Daniels, G. Blood group antibodies in haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. In Hadley, A., Soothill, P. Alloimmune Disorders in Pregnancy Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia, and Neutropenia in the Fetus and Newborn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2002, p. 21–40.

18. Daniels, GL., Fletcher, A., Garratty, G., et al. Blood group terminology 2004: from the International Society of Blood Transfusion committee on terminology for red cell surface antigens. Vox Sang 2004, 87, 4, p. 304–316.

19. Daniels, G., Hadley, A., Green, CA. Causes of fetal anemia in hemolytic disease due to anti-K. Transfusion 2003, 43, p. 115–116.

20. Davie, MJ., Smith, DS., White, UM., Dyball, D. An example of anti-s causing mild haemolytic disease of the newborn. J Clin Pathol 1972, 25, 9, p. 772-773.

21. de Jonge, N., Martens, JE., Milani, AL., et al. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-K antibodies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1996, 67, p. 69–72.

22. de Vrijer, B., Harthoorn-Lasthuizen, EJ., Oosterbaan, HP. [The incidence of irregular antibodies in pregnancy: a prospective study in the region of the ‘s-Hertogenbosch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1999, 143, 50, p. 2523-2527.

23. De Young-Owens, A., Kennedy, M., Rose, RL., et al. Anti-M isoimmunization: management and outcome at the Ohio State University from 1969 to 1995. Obstet Gynecol, 1997, 90, 6, p. 962-966.

24. Donato, E., Guinot, M., Vilar, C., et al. rHuEPO in the management of pregnancy complicated by anti-Dib. Transfusion 2003, 43, p. 681–682.

25. Duguid, JK., Bromilow, IM., Entwistle, GD., Wilkinson, R. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-M. Vox Sang 1995, 68, 3, p. 195-196.

26. Duguid, JK., Bromilow, IM. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-k. Vox Sang 1990, 58, 1, p. 69.

27. Feldman, R., Luhby, AL., Gromisch, DS. Erythroblastosis fetalis due to anti-S antibody. J Pediatr 1973, 82, 1, p. 88-91.

28. Fernandez-Jimenez, MC., Jimenez-Marco, MT., Hernandez, D., et al. Treatment with plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin in pregnancies complicated with anti-PP1Pk or anti-K immunization: a report of two patients. Vox Sang 2001, 80, p. 117–20.

29. Field, TE., Wilson, TE., Dawes, BJ., Giles, CM. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Mt a. Vox Sang 1972, 22, p. 432–437.

30. Filbey, D., Hanson, U., Wesström, G. The prevalence of red cell antibodies in pregnancy correlated to the outcome of the newborn: a 12 year study in central Sweden. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1995, 74, 9, p. 687-692.

31. Finning, K., Martin, P., Summers, J., et al. Fetal genotyping for the K (Kell) and RhC, c, and E blood groups on cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. Transfusion 2007, 47, p. 2126‑2133.

32. Furukawa, K., Nakajima, T., Kogure, T., et al. Example of a woman with multiple intrauterine deaths due to anti-M who delivered a live child after plasmapheresis. Exp Clin Immunogenet 1993, 10, 3, p. 161-167.

33. Geifman-Holtzman, O., Wojtowycz, M., Kosmas, E., Artal, R. Female alloimmunization with antibodies known to cause hemolytic disease. Obstet Gynecol 1997, 89, 2, p. 272-275.

34. Giblett, E., Chase, J., Crealock, FW. Hemolytic disease of the newborn resulting from anti-s antibody; report of a fatal case resulting from the fourth example of anti-s antibody. Am J Clin Pathol, 1958, 29, 3, p. 254-256.

35. Goldstone, AH., Verry, BA., Cooper, M. Transplacental passage of anti-s antibody without haemolysis. Postgrad Med J 1979, 55, 648, p. 743–744.

36. Gonsoulin, WJ., Moise, KJ. Jr., Milam, JD., et al. Serial maternal blood donations for intrauterine transfusion. Obstet Gynecol 1990, 75, 2, p. 158-162.

37. Goodrick, MJ., Hadley, AG., Poole G. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Fy(a) and the potential clinical value of Duffy genotyping in pregnancies at risk. Transfus Med. 1997, 7, p. 301–304.

38. Gordon, MC., Kennedy, MS., O’Shaughnessy, RW., Waheed, A. Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Js(b). Vox Sang 1995, 69, p. 140–141.

39. Griffith, TK. The irregular antibodies - a continuing problem. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980, 15, 137, 2, p. 174-177.

40. Hackney, DN., Knudtson, EJ., Rossi, KQ., et al. Management of pregnancies complicated by anti-c isoimmunization. Obstet Gynecol 2004, 103, 1, p. 24-30.

41. Hadley, AG., Poole, GD., Poole, J., et al. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-G. Vox Sang 1996, 71, p. 108-112.

42. Hessner, MJ., Pircon, RA., Johnson, ST., Luhm, RA. Prenatal genotyping of Jk(a) and Jk(b) of the human Kidd blood group system by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Prenat Diagn 1998, 18, 12, p. 1225-1231.

43. Hessner, MJ., Pircon, RA., Johnson, ST., Luhm, RA. Prenatal genotyping of the Duffy blood group system by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Prenat Diagn 1999, 19, 1, p. 41-45.

44. Huber, AR., Leonard, GT., Driggers, RW., et al. Case report: moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-G. Immunohematology 2006, 22, 4, p. 166-170.

45. Chandrasekar, A., Morris, KG., Tbman, TRJ., et al. The clinical outcome of non-RhD antibody affected pregnancies in Northern Ireland. Ulster Med J 2001, 70, 2, p. 89-94.

46. Chen, CC., Broadberry, RE., Chang, FC., et al. Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by maternal anti-Dib: a case report in Taiwan. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 1993, 52, p. 262–264.

47. Che’rif-Zahar, B., Matte’ i, MG., Le Van Kim, C., et al. Localization of the human Rh blood group gene structure to chromosome region 1p34.3-1p36.1 by in situ hybridization. Hum Genet 1991, 86, p. 398–400.

48. Joy, SD., Rossi, KQ., Krugh, D., O’Shaughnessy, RW. Management of pregnancies complicated by anti-E alloimmunization. Obstet Gynecol 2005,105, 1, p. 24-28.

49. Kanra, T., Yüce, K., Ozcebe, IU. Hydrops fetalis and intrauterine deaths due to anti-M. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1996, 75, 4, p. 415-417.

50. Kim, WD., Lee, YH. A Fatal Case of Severe Hemolytic Disease of Newborn Associated with Anti-Jk(b). J Korean Med Sci 2006, 21, 1, p.151-154.

51. Koelewijn, JM., Vrijkotte, TG., de Haas, M., et al. Risk factors for the presence of non-rhesus D red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy. BJOG 2009, 116, 5, p. 655-664.

52. Kozlowski, CL., Lee, D., Shwe, KH., Love, EM. Quantification of anti-c in haemolytic disease of the newborn. Transfus Med 1995, 5, 1, p. 37-42.

53. Kulich, V., Kout, M. Hemolytic disease of a newborn caused by anti-k antibody. Ces Pediatr 1967, 22, 9, p. 823-826.

54. Kusnierz-Alejska, G., Bochenek, S. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Dia and incidence of the Dia antigen in Poland. Vox Sang 1992, 62, p. 124–126.

55. Lenkiewicz, B., Zupanska, B. The first example of anti-Diego(b) found in a Polish woman with the Di(a+b-) phenotype and haemolytic disease of the newborn not requiring treatment. Transfus Med 2003, 13, p. 161–163.

56. Levine, P., Backer, M., Wigod, M., Ponder, R. A new human hereditary blood property (Cellano) present in 99.8% of all bloods. Science 1949, 6, 109, 2836, p. 464-466.

57. Levine, P., Ferraro, LR., Koch, E. Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to Anti-S; a case report with a review of 12 Anti-S sera cited in the literature. Blood 1952, 7, 10, p. 1030-1037.

58. Levene, C., Rudolphson, Y., Shechter, Y. A second case of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Jsa. Transfusion 1980, 20, p. 714–715.

59. Lubusky, M., Dhaifalah, I., Holuskova, I., et al. The incidence of erythrocyte alloimmunization in pregnant women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009, 107, S2, p. 439.

60. Macpherson, CR., Zartman, ER. Anti-M antibody as a cause of intrauterine death: a follow-up. Am J Clin Pathol 1965, 43, p. 544-547.

61. Marshall, CS., Dwyre, D., Eckert, R., Russell, L. Severe hemolytic reaction due to anti-JK3. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999, 123, p. 949-951.

62. Matson, GA., Swanson, J., Tobin, JD. Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-Jka. Vox Sang 1959, 4, 2, p.144-147.

63. Matsumoto, H., Tamaki, Y., Sato, S., Shibata, K. A case of hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-M: serological study of maternal blood. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Jpn 1981, 33, 4, p. 525-528.

64. Mayne, KM., Bowell, PJ., Green, SJ., Entwistle, CC. The significance of anti-S sensitization in pregnancy. Clin Lab Haematol 1990, 12, 1, p.105-107.

65. McKenna, DS., Nagaraja, HN., O’Shaughnessy, R. Management of pregnancies complicated by anti-Kell isoimmunization. Obstet Gynecol 1999, 93, 5, Pt 1, p. 667-673.

66. Moise, KJ. Fetal anemia due to non-Rhesus-D red-cell alloimunisation. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med, 2008, 13, 4, p. 207-214.

67. Moncharmont, P., Juron-Dupraz, F., Doillon, M., et al. A case of hemolytic disease of the newborn infant due to anti-K (Cellano). Acta Haematol 1991, 85, 1, p. 45-46.

68. Novaretti, MC., Jens, E., Pagliarini, T., et al. Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-U. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 2003, 58, p. 320–333.

69. Oepkes, D., Seaward, PG., Vandenbussche, FP., et al. Doppler ultrasonography versus amniocentesis to predict fetal anemia. N Engl J Med 2006, 13, 355, 2, p. 156-164.

70. Pepperell, RJ., Barrie, JU., Fliegner, JR. Significance of red-cell irregular antibodies in the obstetric patient. Med J Aust 1977, 1, 2, 14, p. 453-456.

71. Polesky, HF. Blood group antibodies in prenatal sera. Minn Med 1967, 50, p. 601-603.

72. Queenan, JT., Smith, BD., Haber, JM., et al. Irregular antibodies in the obstetric patient. Obstet Gynecol 1969, 34, 6, p. 767-771.

73. Race, RR., Sanger, R. Blood groups in man. 6th ed. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Scientific Publications 1975.

74. Reid, ME., Lomas-Francis, C. The Blood Group Antigen Facts Book. Second ed. New York: Elsevier Academic Press 2004.

75. Reid, ME., Sausais, L., Oyen, R., et al. First example of hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-Or and confirmation of the molecular basis of Or. Vox Sang 2000, 79, p. 180–182.

76. Rigal, D., Juron-Dupraz, F., Biggio, B., Jouvenceaux, A. Fetal death and benign hemolytic disease of the newborn from anti-Cellano alloimmunization: 2 new case reports. Rev Fr Transfus Immunohematol 1982, 25, 1, p. 101-104.

77. Rimon, E., Peltz, R., Gamzu, R., et al. Management of Kell isoimmunization-evaluation of a Doppler-guided approach. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006, 28, 6, p. 814-820.

78. Rote, NS. Pathophysiology of Rh isoimmunization. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1982, 25, p. 243–253.

79. Sakuma, K., Suzuki, H., Ohto, H., et al. First case of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Ula antibodies. Vox Sang 1994, 66, p. 293–294.

80. Smith, G., Knott, P., Rissik, J., et al. Anti-U and haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998, 105, 12, p.1318-1321.

81. Spong, CY., Porter, AE., Queenan, JT. Management of isoimmunization in the presence of multiple maternal antibodies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001, 185, 2, p. 481-484.

82. Stanworth, S., Fleetwood, P., de Silva, M. Severe haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Js(b). Vox Sang 2001, 81, p. 134–135.

83. Stone, B., Marsh, WL. Haemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-M. Br J Haematol 1959, 5, p. 344-347.

84. Taylor, AM., Knighton, GJ. A case of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Verweyst (Vw). Transfusion 1982, 22, p. 165–166.

85. Telischi, M., Behzad, O., Issitt, PD., Pavone, BG. Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-N. Vox Sang 1976, 31, 2, 109-116.

86. Ting, JY., Ma, ES., Wong, KY. A case of severe haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Di(a) antibody. Hong Kong Med J 2004, 10, 347–249.

87. Trevett, TN. Jr., Moise, KJ. Jr. Twin pregnancy complicated by severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-g and anti-C. Obstet Gynecol 2005, 106, 5, Pt 2, p. 1178-1180.

88. Uchikawa, M., Shibata, Y., Tohyama, H., et al. A case of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Dib antibodies. Vox Sang 1982, 42, p. 91–92.

89. van den Bos, AG., Steiner, K. Haemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-MUT (MNS 35). Vox Sang 2004, 87, p. 208–209.

90. van Dijk, BA., Hirasing, RA., Overbeeke, MA. [Hemolytic disease of the newborn and irregular blood group antibodies in the Netherlands: prevalence and morbidity]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1999, 10, 143, 28, p. 1465-1469.

91. van Dongen, H., Klumper, FJ., Sikkel, E., et al. Non-invasive tests to predict fetal anemia in Kell-alloimmunized pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005, 25, 4, p. 341-345.

92. van Kamp, IL., Klumper, FJ., Bakkum, RS., et al. The severity of immune fetal hydrops is predictive of fetal outcome after intrauterine treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001, 185, 3, p. 668-673.

93. van Wamelen, DJ., Klumper, FJ., de Haas, M., et al. Obstetric history and antibody titer in estimating severity of Kell alloimmunization in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2007, 109, 5, p. 1093-1098.

94. Vaughan, JI., Warwick, R., Letsky, E., et al. Erythropoietic Suppression in Fetal Anemia Because of Kell Alloimmunization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994, 171, 1, p. 247-252.

95. Vaughan, JI., Manning, M., Warwick, RM., et al. Inhibition of erythroid progenitor cells by anti-Kell antibodies in fetal alloimmune anemia. N Engl J Med 1998, 338, p. 798–803.

96. Vescio, LA., Farina, D., Rogido, M., Sola, A. Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-Fyb. Transfusion 1987, 27, 4, p. 366.

97. Wagner, T., Resch, B., Reiterer, F., et al. Pancytopenia due to suppressed hematopoiesis in a case of fatal hemolytic disease of the newborn associated with anti-K supported by molecular K1 typing. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2004, 26, p. 13–15.

98. Weinstein, L., Taylor, ES. Hemolytic disease of the neonate secondary to anti-Fya. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1975, 1, 121, 5, p. 643-645.

99. Weinstein, L. Irregular antibodies causing hemolytic disease of the newborn: a continuing problem. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1982, 25, p. 321.

100. Wenk, RE., Goldstein, P., Felix, JK. Alloimmunization by hr’(c), hemolytic disease of newborns, and perinatal management. Obstet Gynecol 1986, 67, 5, p. 623-626.

101. Wu, KH., Chang, JG., Lin, M., et al. Hydrops foetalis caused by anti-Mur in first pregnancy - a case report. Transfus Med 2002, 12, p. 325–327.

102. Yazdanbakhsh, K., Rios, M., Storry, JR., et al. Molecular mechanisms that lead to reduced expression of duffy antigens. Transfusion 2000, 40, 3, p. 310–320.

103. Yung, CH., Lin, JS., Hu, HY., et al. [Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by maternal anti-Di(a): a case report. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995, 28, p. 146–150.

Labels
Paediatric gynaecology Gynaecology and obstetrics Reproduction medicine
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

×