Kostné prejavy porúch štítnej žľazy


Authors: Bakos Bence 1;  Takács István 1;  Stern H. Paula 2;  Lakatos Péter 1
Authors‘ workplace: -1st Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary 1;  Department of Pharmacology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA 2
Published in: Clinical Osteology 2018; 23(3): 100-104
Category:

Overview

Hormóny štítnej žľazy ovplyvňujú metabolizmus, proliferáciu a diferenciáciu každej bunky v tele a kostné tkanivo nie z tohto pravidla žiadnou výnimkou. Tyroxín ovplyvňuje všetky typy kostných buniek, od osteoblastov a osteocytov až po chondrocyty a osteoklasty. Neprekvapuje preto, že rôzne narušenia funkcie štítnej žľazy môžu mať pre kostru mladistvého i zrelého človeka celý rad následkov. Niektoré z týchto porúch funkcie štítnej žľazy, ako je rezistencia na tyreoidálne hormóny (RTH), sú pomerne vzácne, zatiaľ čo iné patria medzi najzvyčajnejšie endokrinopatie ako aj u detí, tak aj u dospelých. Napríklad hypertyreóza je jednou z najčastejších príčin sekundárnej osteoporózy, pričom v posledných rokoch je aj kolísanie v normálnej funkcii štítnej žľazy spojované s rizikom zlomeniny. Pre praktikujúceho osteológa je teda nevyhnutné sa dôkladne zoznámiť so vzťahom, ktorý jestvuje medzi rôznymi ochoreniami štítnej žľazy a stavom kostí. V našom príspevku zhŕňame základne poznatky o bunkovom pôsobení tyreoidálnych hormónov, o ich úlohe pri regulácii kostného metabolizmu aj klinický význam najčastejších porúch funkcie štítnej žľazy pre každodennú prax.

Klíčová slova:

endokrinopatie – hormóny štítnej žlazy – hypertyreóza – kostný metaboizmus – sekundárna osteo­poróza – tyreopatire – tyroxín


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