PROGNOSTICS FACTORS, MOLECULAR MARKERS AND PREDICTIVE TOOLS IN UPPER TRACT UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA


Authors: E. Xylinas ;  T. Klatte ;  S. Matin ;  S. F. Shariat
Published in: Urol List 2013; 11(3): 30-39

Overview

Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is a rare disease and the outcomes of patients with UTUC are heterogeneous and, therefore, difficult to predict. The lack of randomized trials in patients with UTUC makes decisions complex. Accurate estimation of treatment success, complications, and long-term morbidity are essential for patients to make informed medical decisions. Recently researchers have developed prognostic tools based on statistical models to obtain the most accurate and reliable predictions. Among the available decision tools, nomograms currently represent the most accurate and widely used tools for prediction of outcomes in patients with cancer. The authors of this article discuss the established prognostic factors in UTUC (including clinic-pathological features and molecular markers) and the currently available predictive tools.

Key words:
upper tract urothelial carcinoma, prognostics factors, molecular markers


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