Why are Chinese workers so unhappy? A comparative cross-national analysis of job satisfaction, job expectations, and job attributes


Autoři: Xing Zhang aff001;  Micha Kaiser aff002;  Peng Nie aff003;  Alfonso Sousa-Poza aff002
Působiště autorů: College of Economics and Management, Northwest A&F University, Yang Ling, Shaanxi, China aff001;  Institute for Health Care & Public Management, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany aff002;  School of Economics and Finance, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China aff003;  Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), Bonn, Germany aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222715

Souhrn

Using data from the 2015 International Social Survey Program (ISSP), this study conducts a multinational comparison of job satisfaction determinants and their drivers in 36 countries and regions, with particular attention to the reasons for relatively low job satisfaction among Chinese workers. Based on our results from a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis, we attribute a substantial portion of the job satisfaction differences between China and the other countries to different job attributes and expectations; in particular, to unmet job expectations for interesting work, high pay, and opportunities for advancement. We also note that, contrary to common belief, Chinese workers value similar attributes as Western workers but perceive their work conditions as very different from those in the West.

Klíčová slova:

Asia – Culture – Employment – Germany – China – Jobs – Poland – Labor studies


Zdroje

1. Platis C., Reklitis P., Zimeras S. Relation between job satisfaction and job performance in healthcare services, Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 175: 480–487.

2. Ayala Y., Peiró Silla J.M., Tordera N., Lorente L., Yeves J. Job satisfaction and innovative performance in young Spanish employees: Testing new patterns in the happy productive worker thesis—A discriminant study, Jounral of Happiness Studies. 2017; 18: 1377–1401.

3. Millissa F.Y., Wu W.P., Chan A.K., Wong M.M. Supervisor-subordinate guanxi and employee work outcomes: The mediating role of job satisfaction. Journal of Bussiness Ethnics. 2009; 88: 77–89.

4. Woo H., Park S.M., Kim H. Job satisfaction as a moderator on the relationship between burnout and scholarly productivity among counseling faculty in the U.S., Asia Pacific Education Review. 2017;18: 573–583.

5. Zhang L., Deng Y.L. Guanxi with supervisor and counterproductive work behavior: The mediating role of job satisfaction, Journal of Business Ethnics. 2016; 134: 413–427.

6. Clark A.E. What makes a good job? Job quality and job satisfaction, IZA World of Labor. 2015; 215: 1–10.

7. Bright L. Does public service motivation really make a difference on the job satisfaction and turnover intentions of public employees?, The American Review of Public Administration. 2008; 38(2): 149–166.

8. Clark A. E. What really matters in a job? Hedonic measurement using quit data, Labour Economics. 2001; 8(2): 223–242.

9. Irvine D.M., Evans M.G. Job satisfaction and turnover among nurses: Integrating research findings across studies. Nursing Research. 1995; 44(4): 246–253. 7624236

10. Mobley W.H. Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover, Journal of Applied Psychology. 1977; 62(2): 237–240.

11. Sousa-Poza A., Sousa-Poza A. A. The effect of job satisfaction on labor turnover by gender: An analysis for Switzerland. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 2007; 36(6), 895–913.

12. Homburg C., Stock R.M. The link between salespeople's job satisfaction and customer satisfaction in a business-to-business context: A dyadic analysis, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 2004; 32: 144–158.

13. Behrman D.W., Bigoness W.J., Perreault J.W. Sources of job related ambiguity and their consequences upon salespersons' job satisfaction and performance, Management Science. 1981; 27(11): 1246–1260.

14. Fu W.H., Deshpande S.P. The impact of caring climate, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on job performance of employees in a China’s insurance company, Journal of Business Ethnics. 2014; 124: 339–349.

15. Shore L.M., Martin H.J. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment in relation to work performance and turnover intentions, Human Relations. 1989; 42(7): 625–638.

16. Judge T. A., Thoresen C. J., Bono J. E., Patton G. K. The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review, Psychological Bulletin. 2001;127: 376–407. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.127.3.376 11393302

17. Dormann C., Zapf D. Job Satisfaction: A meta-analysis of stabilities, Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2001; 22: 483–504.

18. Johns G., Xie J.L. Perception of absence from work: People's Republic of China versus Canada, Journal of Applied Psychology. 1998; 83: 515–530. 9729924

19. Borjas G.J. Job satisfaction, wages, and unions. Journal of Human Resources.1979; 14: 21–40.

20. Clark A.E. Job satisfaction in Britain, British Journal of Industrial Relations. 1996; 34: 189–217.

21. Clark A.E. Job satisfaction and gender: Why are women so happy at work?, Labour Economics. 1997;4: 341–372.

22. Freeman R.B. Job satisfaction as an economic variable, American Economic Review. 1978; 68: 135–141.

23. Locke E.A. What is job satisfaction?, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 1969; 4: 309–336.

24. Sousa-Poza A., Sousa-Poza A.A. Well-being at work: A cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction, Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000; 29: 517–538.

25. Lu L., Kao S.F., Siu O.L., Lu C.Q. Work stress, Chines work values, and work well-bing in the greater China, The Journal of Social Psychology. 2011;151:767–783. doi: 10.1080/00224545.2010.538760 22208113

26. Farh J.L., Hackett R.D., Liang J. Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support-employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality, Academy of Management Journal. 2007; 50: 715–729.

27. Nie P., Ding L.L. and Sousa-Poza A. What Chinese workers value: An analysis of job satisfaction, job expectations, and labor turnover in China, Prague Economic Papers. Forthcoming 2019 (https://doi.org/10.18267/j.pep.726).

28. Clark A.E. What really matters in a job? Hedonic measurement using quit data, Labour Economics. 2001; 8: 223–242.

29. Clark A.E., Oswald A.J. Satisfaction and comparison income, Journal of Public Economics. 1996; 61: 359–381.

30. Gazioglu S., Tansel A. Job satisfaction in Britain: Individual and job related factors, Applied Economics. 2006; 38: 1163–1171.

31. Millán J.M., Hessels J., Thurik R., Aguado R. Determinants of job satisfaction: A European comparison of self-employed and paid employees, Small Business Economics. 2013; 40: 651–670.

32. Sousa-Poza A., Henneberger F. Work attitudes, work conditions and hours constraints: An explorative, cross-national analysis, Labour. 2000; 14: 351–372.

33. Sousa-Poza A., Sousa-Poza A.A. Gender differences in job satisfaction in Great Britain, 1991–2000: Permanent or transitory?, Applied Economics Letters. 2003; 10: 691–694.

34. Spector P.E. Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes and Consequences. California: Sage Publications; 1997.

35. Spector P.E., Allen T.D., Poelmans S.a.Y., Lapierre L.M., Cooper C.L., Driscoll M.O., et al.Cross-national differences in relationships of work demands, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions with work-family conflict, Personnel Psychology. 2007; 60: 805–835.

36. Gao W., Smyth R. Job satisfaction and relative income in economic transition: Status or signal?: The case of urban China, China Economic Review. 2010; 21: 442–455.

37. Ngo H.Y., Foley S., Ji M.S., Loi R. Work satisfaction of Chinese employees: A social exchange and gender-based view, Social Indicators Research. 2014; 116: 457–473.

38. Siu O. Occupational stressors and well-being among Chinese employees: The role of organisational commitment, Applied Psychology. 2002; 51: 527–544.

39. Siu O., Spector P.E., Cooper C.L., Lu C. Work stress, self-efficacy, Chinese work values, and work well-being in Hong Kong and Beijing, International Journal of Stress Management. 2005; 12: 274–288.

40. Smyth R., Zhai Q., Li X. The impact of gender differences on determinants of job satisfaction among Chinese off–farm migrants in Jiangsu, Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies. 2009; 7: 363–380.

41. Tang S., Siu O., Cheung F. A study of work–family enrichment among Chinese employees: The mediating role between work support and job satisfaction, Applied Psychology. 2014; 63: 130–150.

42. Wang H.S., Pan L., Heerink N. Working conditions and job satisfaction in China's new generation of migrant workers: Evidence from an inland city, IZA dicussion paper No. 7405. Bonn: IZA; 2013.

43. Zhai Q., Willis M., O'shea B., Zhai Y., Yang Y. Big Five personality traits, job satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in China, International Journal of Psychology. 2013; 48: 1099–1108. doi: 10.1080/00207594.2012.732700 23075216

44. Pan B.C., Shen X., Liu L., Yang Y.L., Wang L. Factors associated with job satisfaction among university teachers in northeastern region of China: A cross-sectional study, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12: 12761–12775. doi: 10.3390/ijerph121012761 26473906

45. Sargent T., Hannum E. Keeping teachers happy: Job satisfaction among primary school teachers in rural northwest China, Comparative Education Review. 2005; 49: 173–204.

46. Xu F., Shen J. Research on job satisfaction of elementary and high school teachers and strategies to increase job satisfaction, Chinese Education and Society. 2007; 40: 86–96.

47. Ge C., Fu J., Chang Y., Wang L. Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: A cross-sectional study, BMC Public Health. 2011; 11: 884. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-884 22111511

48. Zhang Y.M., Feng X.S. The relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover intention among physicians from urban state-owned medical institutions in Hubei, China: a cross-sectional study, BMC Health Services Research. 2011; 11: 235. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-235 21943042

49. Cai C., Zhou Z. Structural empowerment, job satisfaction, and turnover intention of Chinese clinical nurses. Nursing & Health Sciences. 2009; 11: 397–403.

50. Hu J., Liu H. Job satisfaction among nurses in China, Home Health Care Management and Practice. 2004; 17: 9–13.

51. Li J., Lambert V.A. Job satisfaction among intensive care nurses from the People's Republic of China, International Nursing Review. 2008; 55: 34–39. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2007.00573.x 18275533

52. Liu C., Zhang L., Ye W., Zhu J., Cao J., Lu X., et al. Job satisfaction and intention to leave: A questionnaire survey of hospital nurses in Shanghai of China, Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2012; 21: 255–263. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03766.x 21854472

53. Lu H., While A.E., Louise Barriball K. A model of job satisfaction of nurses: A reflection of nurses’ working lives in Mainland China, Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2007; 58: 468–479. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04233.x 17442033

54. Yang X., Wang W. Exploring the determinants of job satisfaction of civil servants in Beijing,China,Public Personnel Management. 2013;42: 566–587.

55. Li J., Wang W., Sun G., Jiang Z., Cheng Z. Supervisor-subordinate Guanxi and job satisfaction among migrant workers in China, Social Indicators Research. 2018; 139: 293–307.

56. Zhang J.W., Li N., Li H., He F.F. Influence factors of migrant workers' job satisfaction in China: A meta-analysis, Labor Economic Review. 2017; 1: 11–25.

57. Nielsen I., Smyth R. Job satisfaction and response to incentives among China's urban workforce, The Journal of Socio-Economics. 2008; 37: 1921–1936.

58. Cheng Z., Wang H., Smyth R. Happiness and job satisfaction in urban China: A comparative study of two generations of migrants and urban locals, Urban Studies. 2013; 51: 2160–2184.

59. Luo Y. Gender and job satisfaction in urban China: The role of individual, family, and job characteristics, Social Indicators Research. 2016; 125: 289–309.

60. Ruppanner L., Lee R., Huffman M. Do mothers benefit from flexible work? Cross-national evidence for work Time, job Quality, and satisfaction. International Journal of Sociology. 2018;48: 170–187.

61. Mateos-Romero L., Salinas-Jiménez M.D.M. Labor mismatches: Effects on wages and on job satisfaction in 17 OECD countries, Social Indicators Research. 2018; 140: 369–391.

62. Jensen K.W., Liu Y., Schøtt T. Entrepreneurs innovation bringing job satisfaction, work-family balance, and life satisfaction: In China and around the world, International Journal of Innovation Studies. 2017; 1: 193–206.

63. International Social Survery Programme. ISSP 2015-Work Orientaitons IV, Study Monitorting Report, Swiss Center of Expertise in the Social Sciences- FORS, 2017.

64. Hartigan J. A., Wong M.A. A K-means clustering algorithm, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics). 1979; 28: 100–108.

65. James G., Witten D., Hastie T., Tibshirani R. An introduction to statistical learning. New York: Springer. 2013; 112.

66. Ferrer-I-Carbonell A., Frijters P. How important is the methodology for the estimates of determinants of happiness?, Economic Journal. 2004; 114: 641–659.

67. Blanchflower D.G., Oswald A.J. Is well-being U-shaped over the life cycle?, Social Science & Medicine, 2008;66: 1733–1749.

68. Wanous J.P., Reichers A.E., Hudy M.J. Overall job satisfaction: How good are single-item measures?, Journal of Applied Psychology. 1997; 82: 247–252. 9109282

69. Blinder S. Wage discrimination: Reduced form and structural Estimates, Journal of Human Resources, 1973; 8: 436–455.

70. Oaxaca R. Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets, International Economic Review. 1973; 14: 693–709.

71. Jann B. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition for linear regression models, Stata Journal. 2008;8: 453–479.

72. Sen B. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition as an empirical tool to analyaze racial disparities in obesity, Obesity. 2014; 22: 1750–1755. doi: 10.1002/oby.20755 24733610

73. Cao M.L. Analysis of professional choice behavior: Survey of freshmen enrolled in 2008 of Nanjing Tech University, Journal of Cultural and Educational Materials. 2009; 35: 121–124.

74. National Bureau of Statistics of China, China Statistical Yearbook 2016, Beijing: China Statistics Press.

75. Qiu L.J. and Zhao D.X. Urban inclusiveness and income inequality in China, Regional Science and Urban Economics. 2019; 74: 57–64.

76. Hofstede G. Culture and organizations, International Studies of Management and Organization. 1980; 10: 15–41.

77. Ronen S., Shenkar O. Clustering countries on attitudianl dimensions: A review and synthesis, Academy of Management Review. 1985; 10:435–454.

78. Shenkar O., Ronen S. Structure and importance of work goals among managers in the People's Republic of China, The Academy of Management Journal. 1987; 30: 564–576.

79. Kohn M.L. Cross-National Research as an Analytic Strategy. California: SAGE Publications; 1989.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 9

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Kurzy

Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Krvácení v důsledku portální hypertenze při jaterní cirhóze – od pohledu záchranné služby až po závěrečný hepato-gastroenterologický pohled
nový kurz
Autoři: PhDr. Petr Jaššo, MBA, MUDr. Hynek Fiala, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Radan Brůha, CSc., MUDr. Tomáš Fejfar, Ph.D., MUDr. David Astapenko, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Vladimír Černý, Ph.D.

Rozšíření možností lokální terapie atopické dermatitidy v ordinaci praktického lékaře či alergologa
Autoři: MUDr. Nina Benáková, Ph.D.

Léčba bolesti v ordinaci praktického lékaře
Autoři: MUDr. PhDr. Zdeňka Nováková, Ph.D.

Revmatoidní artritida: včas a k cíli
Autoři: MUDr. Heřman Mann

Jistoty a nástrahy antikoagulační léčby aneb kardiolog - neurolog - farmakolog - nefrolog - právník diskutují
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Štěpán Havránek, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Roman Herzig, Ph.D., doc. MUDr. Karel Urbánek, Ph.D., prim. MUDr. Jan Vachek, MUDr. et Mgr. Jolana Těšínová, Ph.D.

Všechny kurzy
Kurzy Doporučená témata Časopisy
Přihlášení
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.

Přihlášení

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se