The ‘Saw but Forgot’ error: A role for short-term memory failures in understanding junction crashes?


Autoři: Chloe J. Robbins aff001;  Harriet A. Allen aff001;  Karl A. Miller aff001;  Peter Chapman aff001
Působiště autorů: School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England, United Kingdom aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222905

Souhrn

Motorcyclists are involved in an exceptionally high number of crashes for the distance they travel, with one of the most common incidents being where another road user pulls out into the path of an oncoming motorcycle frequently resulting in a fatal collision. These instances have previously been interpreted as failures of visual attention, sometimes termed ‘Look but Fail to See’ (LBFTS) crashes, and interventions have focused on improving drivers’ visual scanning and motorcycles’ visibility. Here we show from a series of three experiments in a high-fidelity driving simulator, that when drivers’ visual attention towards and memory for approaching vehicles is experimentally tested, drivers fail to report approaching motorcycles on between 13% and 18% of occasions. This happens even when the driver is pulling out into a safety-critical gap in front of the motorcycle, and often happens despite the driver having directly fixated on the oncoming vehicle. These failures in reporting a critical vehicle were not associated with how long the driver looked at the vehicle for, but were associated with drivers’ subsequent visual search and the time that elapsed between fixating on the oncoming vehicle and pulling out of the junction. Here, we raise the possibility that interference in short-term memory might prevent drivers holding important visual information during these complex manoeuvres. This explanation suggests that some junction crashes on real roads that have been attributed to LBFTS errors may have been misclassified and might instead be the result of ‘Saw but Forgot’ (SBF) errors. We provide a framework for understanding the role of short-term memory in such situations, the Perceive Retain Choose (PRC) model, as well as novel predictions and proposals for practical interventions that may prevent this type of crash in the future.

Klíčová slova:

Attention – Eye movements – Memory – Memory recall – Roads – Short term memory – Vision – Working memory


Zdroje

1. Clarke DD, Ward P, Bartle C, Truman W. The role of motorcyclist and other driver behaviour in two types of serious accident in the UK. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2007 Sep 1;39(5):974–81.

2. Department for Transport. Reported road casualties in Great Britain: 2017 annual report. 2018. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/744077/reported-road-casualties-annual-report-2017.pdf

3. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2017 Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview. U.S. Department of Transportation. 2018. Available from: https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812603

4. Hurt HH, Ouellet JV, Thom DR. Motorcycle accident cause factors and identification of countermeasures: Technical report. The Administration; 1981.

5. ACEM. MaIDS: In-depth investigation of accidents involving powered two wheelers. Final Report 1.2. 2004. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/sites/roadsafety/files/pdf/projects_sources/maids_report_1_2_september_2004.pdf

6. World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety 2018. World Health Organization. 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2018/en/

7. Brown ID. A review of the'looked but failed to see'accident causation factor. InBehavioural research in road safety: Eleventh seminar 2002 Feb.

8. Pammer K, Sabadas S, Lentern S. Allocating attention to detect motorcycles: The role of inattentional blindness. Human factors. 2018 Feb;60(1):5–19. doi: 10.1177/0018720817733901 28982011

9. Cohen MA, Cavanagh P, Chun MM, Nakayama K. The attentional requirements of consciousness. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2012 Aug 1;16(8):411–7. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.06.013 22795561

10. Mack A. Inattentional blindness: Looking without seeing. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2003 Oct;12(5):180–4.

11. DeLucia PR. Effects of size on collision perception and implications for perceptual theory and transportation safety. Current directions in psychological science. 2013 Jun;22(3):199–204.

12. Brendel E, Hecht H, DeLucia PR, Gamer M. Emotional effects on time-to-contact judgments: arousal, threat, and fear of spiders modulate the effect of pictorial content. Experimental brain research. 2014 Jul 1;232(7):2337–47. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-3930-0 24756860

13. Engle RW, Tuholski SW, Laughlin JE, Conway AR. Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach. Journal of experimental psychology: General. 1999 Sep;128(3):309.

14. Liu DW, Shi ZK, Ai WH. Enhanced stability of car-following model upon incorporation of short-term driving memory. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 2017 Jun 1;47:139–50.

15. Sperling G. The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological monographs: General and applied. 1960;74(11):1.

16. Fagot C, Pashler H. Repetition blindness: Perception or memory failure?. Journal of experimental psychology: Human perception and performance. 1995 Apr;21(2):275. doi: 10.1037//0096-1523.21.2.275 7714472

17. Endsley MR. Design and evaluation for situation awareness enhancement. InProceedings of the Human Factors Society annual meeting 1988 Oct (Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 97–101). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

18. Adams MJ, Tenney YJ, Pew RW. Situation awareness and the cognitive management of complex systems. Human factors. 1995 Mar;37(1):85–104.

19. Gugerty LJ. Situation awareness during driving: Explicit and implicit knowledge in dynamic spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 1997 Mar;3(1):42.

20. Groeger JA, Whelan MI, Senserrick TM, Triggs TJ. Remembering and predicting vehicle location: situational awareness in distracted and non-distracted drivers. InRS2002 Conf 2002 (pp. 75–80).

21. Sandamas G, Foreman N. Active versus passive acquisition of spatial knowledge while controlling a vehicle in a virtual urban space in drivers and non-drivers. Sage Open. 2015 Jul 15;5(3):2158244015595443.

22. Mahon A, Clarke AD, Hunt AR. The role of attention in eye-movement awareness. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 2018 Oct 1;80(7):1691–704.

23. Baddeley AD. Working memory Oxford. England: Oxford Uni. 1986.

24. Faul F, Erdfelder E. GPOWER: A priori, post-hoc, and compromise power analyses for MS-DOS [Computer program]. Bonn, FRG: Bonn University, Department of Psychology. 1992.

25. Department for Transport. Free flow vehicle speeds. 2014. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/…/free-flow-vehicle-speeds-2014

26. Robbins CJ, Chapman P. Drivers’ visual search behavior toward vulnerable road users at junctions as a function of cycling experience. Human factors. 2018 Nov;60(7):889–901. doi: 10.1177/0018720818778960 29906399

27. Robbins CJ, Allen HA, Chapman P. Comparing drivers’ gap acceptance for cars and motorcycles at junctions using an adaptive staircase methodology. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour. 2018 Oct 1;58:944–54.

28. MathWorks I. MATLAB and statistics toolbox release 2012b. Natick (Massachusetts, United States). 2012.

29. Levin DT, Momen N, Drivdahl IV SB, Simons DJ. Change blindness blindness: The metacognitive error of overestimating change-detection ability. Visual Cognition. 2000 Jan 1;7(1–3):397–412.

30. Brilon W, Koenig R, Troutbeck RJ. Useful estimation procedures for critical gaps. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 1999 Apr 1;33(3–4):161–86.

31. Kingdom FAA, Prins N. Psychophysics: a practical introduction. San Diego, CA, US: Elsevier Academic Press; 2010.

32. Watson AB, Pelli DG. QUEST: A Bayesian adaptive psychometric method. Perception & psychophysics. 1983 Mar 1;33(2):113–20.

33. Wu G, Chen F, Pan X, Xu M, Zhu X. Using the visual intervention influence of pavement markings for rutting mitigation–part I: preliminary experiments and field tests. International Journal of Pavement Engineering. 2019 Jun 3;20(6):734–46.

34. Zhu X, Dai Z, Chen F, Pan X, Xu M. Using the visual intervention influence of pavement marking for rutting mitigation–Part II: visual intervention timing based on the finite element simulation. International Journal of Pavement Engineering. 2019 May 4;20(5):573–84.

35. Hardiess G, Gillner S, Mallot HA. Head and eye movements and the role of memory limitations in a visual search paradigm. Journal of Vision. 2008 Jan 1;8(1):7. doi: 10.1167/8.1.7 18318610

36. Simons DJ, Jensen MS. The effects of individual differences and task difficulty on inattentional blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 2009 Apr 1;16(2):398–403.

37. Drew T, Võ ML, Wolfe JM. The invisible gorilla strikes again: Sustained inattentional blindness in expert observers. Psychological science. 2013 Sep;24(9):1848–53. doi: 10.1177/0956797613479386 23863753

38. Most SB, Simons DJ, Scholl BJ, Jimenez R, Clifford E, Chabris CF. How not to be seen: The contribution of similarity and selective ignoring to sustained inattentional blindness. Psychological science. 2001 Jan;12(1):9–17. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00303 11294235

39. Iskander J, Hanoun S, Hettiarachchi I, Hossny M, Saleh K, Zhou H, Nahavandi S, Bhatti A. Eye behaviour as a hazard perception measure. In2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon) 2018 Apr 23 (pp. 1–6). IEEE.

40. Fleck MS, Samei E, Mitroff SR. Generalized “satisfaction of search”: Adverse influences on dual-target search accuracy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 2010 Mar;16(1):60. doi: 10.1037/a0018629 20350044

41. Hole GJ, Tyrrell L, Langham M. Some factors affecting motorcyclists' conspicuity. Ergonomics. 1996 Jul 1;39(7):946–65.

42. Endsley MR. Measurement of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human factors. 1995 Mar;37(1):65–84.

43. Gaunet F, Vidal M, Kemeny A, Berthoz A. Active, passive and snapshot exploration in a virtual environment: influence on scene memory, reorientation and path memory. Cognitive Brain Research. 2001 Jun 1;11(3):409–20. 11339990

44. Levelt WJ, Kelter S. Surface form and memory in question answering. Cognitive psychology. 1982 Jan 1;14(1):78–106.

45. Diwadkar VA, McNamara TP. Viewpoint dependence in scene recognition. Psychological Science. 1997 Jul;8(4):302–7.

46. Shelton AL, McNamara TP. Systems of spatial reference in human memory. Cognitive psychology. 2001 Dec 1;43(4):274–310. doi: 10.1006/cogp.2001.0758 11741344

47. Rieser JJ. Access to knowledge of spatial structure at novel points of observation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 1989 Nov;15(6):1157. 2530309

48. Baddeley A. The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2000 Nov 1;4(11):417–23. 11058819

49. Horowitz TS, Wolfe JM. Visual search has no memory. Nature. 1998 Aug;394(6693):575. doi: 10.1038/29068 9707117

50. Johannsdottir KR, Herdman CM. The role of working memory in supporting drivers’ situation awareness for surrounding traffic. Human factors. 2010 Dec;52(6):663–73. doi: 10.1177/0018720810385427 21284368

51. Baddeley A. Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature reviews neuroscience. 2003 Oct;4(10):829. doi: 10.1038/nrn1201 14523382

52. Baddeley A, Banse R, Huang YM, Page M. Working memory and emotion: Detecting the hedonic detector. Journal of Cognitive Psychology. 2012 Feb 1;24(1):6–16.

53. LeDoux J. Rethinking the emotional brain. Neuron. 2012 Feb 23;73(4):653–76. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.02.004 22365542

54. Amin HJ, Maurya AK. A review of critical gap estimation approaches at uncontrolled intersection in case of heterogeneous traffic conditions. Journal of transport literature. 2015 Sep;9(3):5–9.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 9

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Kurzy

Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Léčba bolesti v ordinaci praktického lékaře
nový kurz
Autoři: MUDr. PhDr. Zdeňka Nováková, Ph.D.

Revmatoidní artritida: včas a k cíli
Autoři: MUDr. Heřman Mann

Jistoty a nástrahy antikoagulační léčby aneb kardiolog - neurolog - farmakolog - nefrolog - právník diskutují
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Štěpán Havránek, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Roman Herzig, Ph.D., doc. MUDr. Karel Urbánek, Ph.D., prim. MUDr. Jan Vachek, MUDr. et Mgr. Jolana Těšínová, Ph.D.

Léčba akutní pooperační bolesti
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Jiří Málek, CSc.

Nové antipsychotikum kariprazin v léčbě schizofrenie
Autoři: prof. MUDr. Cyril Höschl, DrSc., FRCPsych.

Všechny kurzy
Kurzy Doporučená témata Časopisy
Přihlášení
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.

Přihlášení

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se