The responses of extracellular enzyme activities and microbial community composition under nitrogen addition in an upland soil


Autoři: Sami Ullah aff001;  Chao Ai aff001;  Shaohui Huang aff001;  Jiajia Zhang aff001;  Liangliang Jia aff002;  Jinchuan Ma aff001;  Wei Zhou aff001;  Ping He aff001
Působiště autorů: Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, PR China aff001;  Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Hebei, PR China aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223026

Souhrn

Tremendous amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizer have been added to arable lands, often resulting in substantial effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including soil acidification, altered enzyme activities and changes in microbial community composition. Soil microbes are the major drivers of soil carbon (C) and N cycling; therefore, understanding the response of microbial communities to elevated N inputs is of significant importance. This study was carried out to investigate the influences of different N fertilization rates (0, 182, and 225 kg ha-1 representing control, low, and high N supply for each crop season for summer maize and winter wheat) on soil biochemical attributes, extracellular enzyme activities, and the microbial community composition in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system in north-central China. The results showed that N addition significantly decreased the soil pH in both the wheat and maize seasons. Microbial biomass N (MBN) decreased following N fertilization in the wheat season, while the opposite trend in MBN was observed in the maize season. Response ratio analysis showed that the activities of enzymes involved in C, N, and phosphorus cycling were significantly enhanced under N enrichment in both the wheat and maize seasons, and higher enzyme activities were noted in the high N addition treatment than in the low N addition treatment. A linear increase in fungal abundance with the N addition gradient was observed in the wheat season, whereas the fungal abundance increased and then decreased in the maize season. The bacterial abundance showed an increased and then decreased trend in response to the N addition gradient in both the wheat and maize crop seasons. Moreover, the partial least squares path model (PLS-PM) analysis showed that soil pH and soil organic carbon (SOC) were the most important soil variables, causing shifts in the soil bacteria. Furthermore, compared with the N-cycling enzymes, the C-cycling enzymes were significantly affected by the soil pH and SOC. Taken together, these results suggest that the effect of N addition on enzyme activities was consistent in both crop seasons, while the effects on MBN and microbial community composition to N addition were highly variable in the two crop seasons. Moreover, N fertilization-induced changes in the soil chemical properties such as soil acidity and SOC played a substantial role in shaping the microbial community.

Klíčová slova:

Agricultural soil science – Bacteria – Cereal crops – Crops – Fertilizers – Maize – Wheat – Soil pH


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