The effects of combining focus of attention and autonomy support on shot accuracy in the penalty kick

Autoři: Hubert Makaruk aff001;  Jared Marak Porter aff002;  Jerzy Sadowski aff003;  Anna Bodasińska aff004;  Janusz Zieliński aff005;  Tomasz Niźnikowski aff006;  Andrzej Mastalerz aff007
Působiště autorů: Department of Athletics and Swimming, The Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biala Podlaska, Biala Podlaska, Poland aff001;  Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States of America aff002;  Department of Theory and Technology of Sport, The Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biala Podlaska, Biala Podlaska, Poland aff003;  Department of Sport Games, The Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biala Podlaska, Biala Podlaska, Poland aff004;  Department of Sport Games, The Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biala Podlaska, Biala Podlaska, Poland aff005;  Department of Gymnastics, The Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biala Podlaska, Biala Podlaska, Poland aff006;  Department of Biomechanics, The Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland aff007
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213487


The penalty kick is of great importance in the sport of soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test predictions of the OPTIMAL theory and identify key attentional and motivational factors that impact the accuracy of the penalty kick. The following six groups of moderately skilled participants performed penalty kicks following instructions that directed their focus of attention or impacted their autonomy support: external focus with autonomy support (EF/AS), external focus alone (EF), internal focus with autonomy support (IF/AS), internal focus alone (IF), autonomy support alone (AS) and control (C) groups. The analysis showed that the EF/AS group demonstrated better kicking accuracy relatively to the IF/AS, IF and C groups, but there were no significant differences between the EF/AS and EF or AS groups. Interestingly, the EF/AS group showed higher self-efficacy compared to the EF, IF/AS, IF and C groups. The finding suggest that a combination of attentional and motivational factors may produce benefits in motor performance.

Klíčová slova:

Attention – Behavior – Cameras – Human learning – Learning – Motivation – Musculoskeletal system – Sports


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