The accuracy of the frontal extent in stereoscopic environments: A comparison of direct selection and virtual cursor techniques

Autoři: Chiuhsiang Joe Lin aff001;  Dino Caesaron aff001;  Bereket Haile Woldegiorgis aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Industrial Management, School of Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan (R.O.C.) aff001;  Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering, Telkom University, Bandung, Indonesia aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222751


This experiment investigated the accuracy of distance judgment and perception of the frontal extent in a stereoscopic environment. Eight virtual targets were projected in a circular arrangement with two center-to-center target distances (18 cm and 36 cm) and three target sizes (0.6 cm, 1.5 cm, and 3.7 cm). Fourteen participants judged the positions of virtual targets presented at a distance of 90 cm from them by employing two different interaction techniques: the direct selection technique and the virtual cursor technique. The results showed overall higher accuracy with the virtual cursor technique than with the direct selection technique. It was also found that the target size significantly affected the frontal extent accuracy. In addition, significant interactions between technique and center-to-center target distance were observed. The direct selection technique was more accurate at the 18 cm center-to-center target distance along the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) axes, while the virtual cursor technique was more accurate for the 36 cm center-to-center target distance along the y axis. During the direct selection, estimations tended to converge to the center of the virtual space; however, this convergence was not observed in the virtual cursor condition. The accuracy of pointing estimations suffered on the left side of participants. These findings could provide direction for virtual reality developers in selecting proper interaction techniques and appropriately positioning virtual targets in stereoscopic environments.

Klíčová slova:

Employment – Experimental design – Eyes – Surgical and invasive medical procedures – Virtual reality – Vision – Distance measurement


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