Spatio-temporal variations in wheat aphid populations and their natural enemies in four agro-ecological zones of Pakistan


Autoři: Muhammad Faheem aff001;  Shafqat Saeed aff003;  Asif Sajjad aff004;  Su Wang aff005;  Abid Ali aff006
Působiště autorů: Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan aff001;  CABI South East Asia, MARDI, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia aff002;  Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan aff003;  Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan aff004;  Institute of Plant and Environment Protection, Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, PR China aff005;  Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222635

Souhrn

Aphids are major pests of wheat crop in Pakistan inflicting considerable economic losses. A better knowledge of landscape scale spatial distribution of aphids and their natural enemies could be used to improve integrated pest management programs. Therefore, the present study aimed to document spatio-temporal variations in populations of wheat aphids and their natural enemies in Pakistan. The 2-year survey study was carried out at ten experimental farms located in five districts of four contrasted agro-ecological zones of eastern Pakistan (Punjab area) i.e. District Chakwal in arid zone, Gujranwala in rice-cropped zone, Faisalabad in central mixed-cropped zone, and Khanewal and Multan in cotton-cropped zone. The dominant aphid species i.e. Schizaphis graminum, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis and Sitobion avenae varied significantly among the five districts surveyed. The population of S. graminum was observed more abundant in arid, R. padi in rice, S. avenae in aird and rice, and R. maidis in cotton-I zones. Aphids ended their population dynamics on 25th March in central mixed-cropped zone and 12th April in other three zones. Various species of natural enemies, mainly Coccinella septumpunctata, C. undecimpunctata, Menochilus sexmaculata, Chrysoperla carnea, Syrphidae and parasitoid mummies were inconsistently observed in four agro-ecological zones. The population of C. septumpunctata, was observed more abundant in rice zone, C. undecimpunctata and C. carnea in cotton-I and arid zones, M. sexmaculata in cotton-I and II zones, Syrphidae in cotton-I zone and parasitoid mummies in rice and arid zones. There were no clear relationships between aphid and the natural enemy populations. The present study may serve as a baseline regarding distribution of wheat aphids and their natural enemies and the results provided insights for further studies on the potential top-down (natural enemies) versus bottom-up (fertilization and irrigation regimes) forces in management of wheat aphids in eastern Pakistan.

Klíčová slova:

Cereal crops – Cotton – Population dynamics – Rice – Seasons – Wheat – Aphids – Pakistan


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